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Availbale Products, Material- and Service suppliers => Do It Yourself => Topic started by: elgersmad on October 31, 2010, 07:01:24 AM

Title: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on October 31, 2010, 07:01:24 AM
Well, this makes Doing It Yourself, a major undertaking.  But, you can.

If you have your first year of College Level Electronics under your belt, then you can do this.

You will need One Phelonic toroid core, a Yellow and White Powdered Iron Core, both would be better to have the same mechanical dimensions.  1.5 KW rating.  The phelonic core won't be issue by so much as the toroid.  T400 is a good model for this circuit.  It sucks, but you'd be better off using Litz Wire or 10 AWG for the primary winding to establish the highest Q possible at 1MHz.  Operating frequency isn't so important as each stage being tuned to the same frequency, and how to tune it properly when you do have the equipment.

Then there is the light bulb.  It should be made from a spiraled quartz tube.  Neon is okay, sulfur works, and there are a few other good gases for a really good light bulb. This Quartz Coil (http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/quartz-tube-coil.html) is ideal for the Uy core at this link. Large Ferrite Core (http://www.directindustry.com/prod/nanjing-hengchuang-magnetic-electronics/large-size-ferrite-core-63446-422164.html)

This textbox is jumping around so much, that I will have to make a second post.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on October 31, 2010, 07:10:34 AM
The glass coil is closed at both ends, and a very fine wire wrapped around it.  It acts like a starter, and the bulb or that filament do not complete any circuit.  It should be left as an open secondary.

Basic Parallel Resonant Tank Circuits are how this circuit produces so much energy.  Even if you use the primary winding of an unloaded transformer, it just functions as an inductor.  Until you load it or place a load on the secondary, there is no energy loss in the tank circuit operating on the primary winding using it as an simple inductor.  The bulb works because, the potential is always there on the secondary to be measured, and that means that the full population of free electrons in that wire that is the secondary windings, they move from one end of the wire to the other, and as long as there is no load, no loss.  That means that when there is a plasma/light from the bulb, the electrons move in the same fashion as with an unloaded secondary.  Now, if you punch in values of the components used in this schematic, which all should be tuned to 1MHz, in Electronics Workbench, then you will see a very high voltage and current produced.  Any other design, or any other conditions and this bulb would not produce so much light that it really would prove to be well over Unity in Operation.

This text box, is too screwed up for me to continue to use.  It jumps from the top line to the line I am writing on, and doesn't stop. Every time I type a character, I wind up looking at it for a split second, then jumping to the top of the page.  I will not contue to use this.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on October 31, 2010, 07:31:04 AM
This circuit should be driven by a bridge H MOSFET circuit, with a very low output impedance.  The output voltage should be at least 200 volts to drive it.  Be prepared to work over your circuit several times and look into diode protection.  My experience with these circuits tell me that you should never use battery power unless it is a lead acid battery.  Anything else will overheat or explode due to over voltages and currents.  I can only tell you this, any gas should work if the voltage per cm of the length of the bulb is 200 volts.  So, if the bulb's coil length is 100 cm, you'll need to reach a peak to peak voltage of 20KV.  That doesn't mean that it cannot be a step up design.  If you have a one turn primary and it's 10 cm long, then you'll only need 2KV to drive it, and the secondary can still be 100 cm long.

For certain, you do want to be able to use any gas, atmosphere or neon, since the bulb has no electrodes, it just allows you absolute color control.  Doing the math for grow bulbs, all of the major wavelengths of light ideal for growing are actually produced by the elements that the plant is made of in a plasma state.  So, if you have a bell jar, you can burn healthy leaves in a crucible, then use a coil and a quartz tube to produce an inductively coupled plasma to break down all of the molecules into atoms.  Fill the bulb with that gas, and you have the ideal grow light.  Since the bulb has no electrodes, it is okay to have hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and no need to worry, it won't kill your bulb to operate on those gases.  No need for noble gases.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 01, 2010, 09:54:01 AM
C4 does not belong in the schematic.  I used it to take a snap shot of the schematic, and keep the error message off of the screen.  When I run the simulations, C4 should be replaced with a 500 Meg Ohm resistor.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 03, 2010, 09:51:46 PM
It looks like there's no way to find a simulator that will give you the right answers.  I've spent money on a few, and no longer are the people that test the circuits sitting next to the guys writing the software.  I suggest going back to the books and using an application such as SciLab, to model your circuit first to find the resulting current and voltage values.  Most of these you'll need to produce a inductor model like in spice that doesn't eliminate self inductance because, even thought a transformer is just two coils, it doesn't change the effects of self inductance.  Often, you wind up using V=L(di/dt).  All it takes is one fruitloop who thinks he knows it all to try to encorporate the Laws of Thermodynamics in a circuit where those laws don't apply.
http://www.tpub.com/content/neets/14181/css/14181_13.htm
http://www.scilab.org/
I can't find simulator that works right now, it seems that SPICE F3 and XSpice are screwed up. The textbooks have the right answers.  It's only typical that applying 100 volts at a the resonant frequency of parallel tank crcuit would automatically jump up to 141.4 volts running.  Even the current gows up and for some dimwit to try to make sure that energy in is equal to energy out by modifying the simulators doesn't model reality at all.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 04, 2010, 01:06:50 AM
In most simulators, if you have just one capacitor and one inductor in parallel, and apply 10 Volts AC at the resonant frequency of the pair for example, 1uF and 1mH gives you a resonant frequency of 5032 Hz, or 5.032 Khz.  So, when you set the AC source voltage to 10 volts for the capacitor and inductor in parallel, the frequency is 5032, your simulator will show you a voltage of 14.14 Volts.  It doesn't convert the source to RMS or anything like that.  When you use a transformer's primary in parallel with a capacitor, running it at the same frequency that the circuit is resonant to, has the same results before the voltage or current is stepped up or down.  In three stages, that should produce a voltage and current that 2.827 times greater than is measured in the primary resonant circuit.  That would be three bobbin wound RF Transformers, with the primary on one bobbin and leg of the transformer and the secondary on the other leg on a seperate bobbin, all with a winding ratio of 1:1.

I've built the circuits, and the rule of thumb when all of the stages are tuned to the same frequency, is simple Pout = Pin * Q * Q * Q.  Q is just the value of inductance divided by the the winding resistance of the coil of each primary.  Typically, you try to use a core that allows you to govern the direction of the majority of current flow.  So, the secondary would have a high winding resistance due to more turns and a longer length of wire, and the next primary would have the same value of inductance by using a core with a higher permeability, less windings, and a higher Q.  The greater current flow will then be through the primary of the next resonant stage.

If you have a core permeability values of 2, 200, and 20,000, using three turns for each primary and 30 for every secondary, will result in a set of transformers that from lowest to highest will all have almost the same inductance on the secondary as the primary of the next.  The output of T1, wound on the core with a permeability of 2 will have the same inductance on the secondary as T2's primary, even though it is still only three turns.  The winding resistance of the secondary of T1 is 10 times greater than the primary of T2, and the majority of current will flow through T2's secondary in resonance, rather than do anything with T1's Primary.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 04, 2010, 01:28:50 AM
The Uy type transformer core is ideal for this light bulb because, you can go and buy a fused quartz coil, then go to a neon sign maker, to seal one end, then evacuate it of atmospheric gases and use a gas of your choice.  On the Uy transformer coil, the secondary of the last trasnformer is actually, this glass coil.
http://www.edgemontglass.com/

Turn per turn, there is a hair fine wire that you'll have to place in order to start the bulb. Since, both ends are closed, and the single strand of wire, runs parallel to each turn, turn per turn, the bulb fires up but the circuit and transformer core cannot distinguish that it's not just an open secondary, allowing the primary to act as if there is no load.  The electrons still travel from one end of the bulb to the other, and when the plasma is hot enough, and run at a frequency above 100KHz, it doesn't not extinguish, and remains nearly as conductive as copper wire.  If it is or not is really established by plasma temperature, or power applied.  At that point, the whole circuit responds as if there is no load on the secondary of that transformer, and Q winds up it's highest for all stages and the equations that won't work under any other conditions are all and will all work because T3, not appears to be just an inductor at the end of the line of some tranformer coupled parallel resonant circuits.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: markdansie on November 04, 2010, 01:35:55 AM
Just curiois,
have you built and tested this.
I like your original thinking
Mark
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 04, 2010, 08:57:12 AM
Just curiois,
have you built and tested this.
I like your original thinking
Mark

I've built and tested the entire schematic.  The only exception is that I haven't aquired a quartz tube.  I do have a vacuum pump, bell jar, and list of other things that I've used to build plasma chambers, I have even taken ceramics and actually carved leather hard clay into parts I could afford to have machined.  I highly suggest ceramics for making your own parts if you ever get into high voltages, or vacuum tube tech.  I took on studying plasma physics, and copper and highly conductive metals are considered solid plasmas and a large number of equations don't really change or work differently until you look at temperature.  A plasma will be close to 10,000 degrees C, and as conductive as copper or nearly superconductive.  The difference between superconductors and magnetic fields is that the plasma is so light, it will move before a magnet could ever float on it.

I've found Magntics Designer, and several spice models that will model a real transformer, and fix the results and bring them up to realistic simulations.  But, you cannot trust the simulator until you have a test circuit that is duplicating the results of a spice model.  Yes,  including an unloaded secondary on the final stage.  The only difference is whether the bulb is there or not.  At that point, it really will only respond as a open secondary.  The quartz tube would be closed at both ends, have no electrodes, and no ground connections.  It just floats like a secondary wihout any connections too it.  Just a single hair fine wire that is mechanically parallel to that bulb, possibly even glued too it or lightly wound around the quartz tube just to keep it in position and manage the same number of turns around the magnetic core.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: exnihiloest on November 04, 2010, 09:22:09 AM
I've built and tested the entire schematic.
...

Could you show us photos? I don't well understand how is connected the quartz tube.
And how did you lead measurements to demonstrate OU? Can you present them?

Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 04, 2010, 10:44:03 AM
Could you show us photos? I don't well understand how is connected the quartz tube.
And how did you lead measurements to demonstrate OU? Can you present them?

It's not that hard, all you need is a couple of toroids and magnet wire.  Then you grap a coil winding calculator that gives you cores that you can find or buy on the internet.

At that point, you just work with single inductors.  For a transformer, it's important to load the primary.  So, from that point, you are due to make several measurements using a signal generator and an oscilloscope.
mini Ring Core Calculator (http://www.softpedia.com/get/Science-CAD/mini-Ring-Core-Calculator.shtml) this software works well to calculate the primary and secondary windings values of inductance on different cores when the secondary is unloaded.  Don't let the name fool you, a T400 Core can handle 1KW but, if you don't want it to heat up, I wouldn't suggest using it for more than 500 Watts.  Heat and core saturation are the enemy.  If I could afford metglas, I would probably be using it at an operating frequency of around 150KHz to 200KHz.  The core I'm trying to order right now maxes out at 150KW at 250KHz.  Most likely, the only way to avoid overheating the core and changing it's permeability is going to be running it at half power.  Those ratings tend to be made where the wire is getting hot, or the core itself.  They'll push them as far as the curie temperature will allow. Then I'll go to the trouble to order some doorknob capcitors, 3 of them, one for each stage, and a vacuum tuning capacitor, all of which are normally used in DXing, or Amature Radio Transmitters that operate around 1KW to be legal.  But, the parts are often rated clear up to what you would use for a 50KW AM Radiostation.  You can't get away with tiny little leads, and ask them to handle more than a single ampere of current.  I'm making a big lightbulb, not another tiny circuit that's just breadboardered at 50 or a 100 watts just to see the readings or compare it to a simulation that's scaled down to parts I have on hand.  Custom winding large coils, a single large coil by hand can take several hours just due to the stiffness of solid wire, and at this point, I'm not looking at simply theory, and have moved up to a bigger better design.

Where do you think I came up with this equation Pout = Pin * Q * Q * Q?

I tested the circuit, and when every stage is tuned to the same frequency, resonance and Q put that much energy in the final stage. The impedance of a parallel tank circuit, is at it's highest at the resonant frequency.  It's just that a typical simulator does not include an accurate transformer model.  The primary should still act just like a plain inductor when the secondary is left unloaded.  But, when you place a capacitor in parallel with the primary, 10 volts supplied at the resonant frequency does not produce 14.14 Volts AC.  If the transformer were a 1 to 10 step up winding, then you should have an output of 141.4 volts.  You can physically measure that.  This is all first year stuff if you've taken college level electronics.  Oscillators and amplifiers are second or third year if it includes biasing.  Then Bridge H MOSFET circuits.  Typically if you have a low value of XL, you need a driver that has an output impedance of half of that value at the resonant frequency just to get the thing to resonate at the peak voltage during operation.  When the impedance goes up do to the resonant state of the circuit it may be over 1K ohms.  But, until then it's not.  Yea, it will still resonate but, it will just suck all of the power out of the driver circuit as if it couldn't reach the supply output voltage or peak out 1.414 times greater.

Circuit simulators are free, SWCad is out there, and there are even tutorials that include how to correct for transformers on the internet.  LTWiki.  They do not deny that the simulators are not producing real world results from transformers, so you can't see the kind of results that would allow you to choose the right diameter or bundle of litz wire.  The simulators are cheaper if you learn to use one.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 05, 2010, 12:08:16 AM
ltWiki (http://ltwiki.org/index.php5?title=Transformers) This article defines how to simulate real transformers using LtSpice IV, which is a free circuit simulator.

I use B2 Spice, and I have to fix my simulator's models to make them work right too.

Transformer Simulation with B2 Spice (http://www.beigebag.com/case_xfrmer_1.htm)

They don't write these articles because the simulators work right.  Typically, you're looking at an engineering shortcut, and all that the model transformer does is use a turn ratio to multiply or divide a voltage, and multiply or divide a current.  If the voltage is multiplied, the current is divided by the same factor, and as a result power is always linear.  It doesn't include self inductance of the primary, won't work for a list of power supply circuits, and they do not deny that.  Just read the articles.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: poynt99 on November 05, 2010, 01:08:48 AM
I've done extensive simulations with inductors and transformers (linear and non-linear) and I usually have little trouble.

I can see right away two things from your diagram that will make the simulation unrealistic (and troublesome for convergence). What I suggest is:

1) Add some series (real world) resistance with each winding
2) Air-core coupling is never 1. Depending on how loosely the coupling, you may use anywhere from 0.2 to 0.7 or so.

I use PSpice.

.99
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 05, 2010, 05:44:05 AM
I've done extensive simulations with inductors and transformers (linear and non-linear) and I usually have little trouble.

I can see right away two things from your diagram that will make the simulation unrealistic (and troublesome for convergence). What I suggest is:

1) Add some series (real world) resistance with each winding
2) Air-core coupling is never 1. Depending on how loosely the coupling, you may use anywhere from 0.2 to 0.7 or so.

I use PSpice.

.99

That's good.  But, this is not unrealistic.  At first, it seems that way.  But, if you don't go to the trouble to actually build the circuits you won't know.  First, there are several kinds of transformers, and the geometry of the windings and cores make a big difference.  A 1:1 bifilar is locked to a specific value of inductance on the primary and secondary.  As the load changes on the secondary, it never changes the resonant frequency of a parallel tank circuit built on the primary in construction/breadboarded.  The Q changes and the ring value changes, so it uses more energy with a lower load impedance.  Now, if I use a U core or a C core, and wind the primary on one bobbin, and the secondary on the other at a 1:1 turns ratio, the primary and secondary inductances are no long locked to one value.  Instead of Q changing, the inductance of the primary will change as the load on the secondary changes.  But, to know this you would have to build two seperate transformers made from the same core material, and have the same winding cross section or area.  To be sure that your results are correct the inductance of L1, L2, of T1 should be equal to L1 and L2 of T2 when the secondary is unloaded.

In B2 Spice, that would make the current transformer model more ideal, or modifying the lossy inductor model to replace the inductors used in that model to accomodate for losses properly. The Lossy Core, doesn't include INductance of the Primary, mutual inductance, or the inductance of the secondary, like the current transformer model does.  So, to simulate a real transformer, you would have to combine the lossy inductor with the ideal transformer model and the current transformer model.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 05, 2010, 10:39:34 PM
There is a way to test a transformer and determin that the reason why the models are not working right is associated to how a reflected load actually works through a transformer from the secondary to the primary.  This inductance meter is very helpful in figuring out how the model has to change.
L/C Meter II (http://www.aade.com/lcmeter.htm)

What you do, is hook up the primary to the meter, and the secondary to a potentiometer or resistor decade box.  Then just add a 100 ohms of resistance starting from a short circuited secondary and plot a simple graph.  To scale the graph, you measure the inductance of the primary open and then shorted to get the maximum and minimum values of inductance.  The Spice Model would include Pmin, Pmax, Smin and Smax, and if there are more windings, s1, s2, etc.  If you plot the graph you find out that the change in inductance of the primary is linear in respect to the secondary.  So, it's just a straight line.  But, the turn ratio effects it, and comparing 1:2 to 1:10 to 1:100 shows a real difference in change, and when you reverse the direction of driving it and use the secondary as a primary, which is always possible.  So, what you have in the model would be two seperate values of inductance, that change the value of inductance of an inductor in henrys based upon the load on the secondary.  That way the computer can recalculate resonance.  If you wanted a simple self tuning resonant power circuit, you'd base upon an Armstrong Oscillator design to use the core and feed back from a tickler coil to drive the oscillator.  So, when L of the primary changes, Q changes, and f0 floats over a range of frequencies that are load dependant. But, there's nothing you can do with multiple stages because, the center frequency is all over the place for any changing load.  So, we need a model that allows us to change the primary value based upon the secondary's load.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 05, 2010, 11:02:51 PM
All these simulator issues if resolved really only solve one problem with simulations compared to actual circuits.  The problem of finding the right values of capacitance to tune a group of transformers' primaries to the same frequency and coupling them output to input in several stages as in the schematic.  Normally, you'd tune the output stage, measure the impedance, replace the last stage with a substitute resistor of that value, tune the stage before the output, then hook those two up.  Inject a single to the two tuned stages, measure the impedance, replace that with a substitute resistor, then tune the stage before the two that were tuned.  Then getting them all precision tuned to the same frequency is possible, and once done will operate well over unity.  But, unless the simulator is operating right, you cannot do this without physically doing the latter mentioned in this message.  Then you'll find out that the simulator isn't using the same values of capacitance to zero in on the same frequency.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 06, 2010, 09:59:53 PM
I believe that this article shows how and why my muscle circuit really winds up over unity.

Nonlinear Magnetic Transmission Lines/Metglas Pulse Shapers (http://www.beigebag.com/case_magxm.htm)

The collapsing magnetic field that takes place in the core of an inductor or transformer is faster than the build up of magnetic lines when a pulse is applied.  As a result, self inductance actually pushes a few more electrons in the same direction at a higher energy level.  If you look at the pulse, the frequency is higher stage per stage.  If you look at my circuit, every stage is tuned to the same frequency.  The result is that at resonance the capacitors over fill after several cycles, so the first stage actually pushes a little more energy into the second stage, and the second stages pushes even more energy into the third.  As long as Q is high for every stage, it all adds up.

In modeling inductors, I believe that the reason why the inductance of the secondary changes, is that when the current is induced in the secondary it first breaks the magnetic circuit following Faraday's law of induction or Lenz law of equal but opposite force.  The more you draw from the secondary, the lower the inductance of the primary.  Second, the induced voltage on the secondary, uses part of the core to produce opposing magnetic lines due to the current flow in those coils.  THis uses part of the core and the magnetic circuit to produce magnetic lines that oppose the primary's magnetic field making north face north, and south face south.

So, no matter what the material, a better core would be in L shaped sections, and gapped in four places to produce what would appear to be a U core.  That would make L1 and L2, or the primary and the secondary adjustable values of inductance by adjusting the gap under the winding bobbins.  Then it would give you a value of inductance to work with that wouldn't change by so much because, of the two gaps between the the two windings.  It prevents one side of the core and windings from opposing the production of more magnetic lines.  Smaller slugs and the gapping would allow for a high resonant operating frequency as well.  It would be noisier as far as RF noise from the circuit.  But, the advantage of a higher operating frequency from a larger core is there.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: Kator01 on November 07, 2010, 12:42:22 AM
Hello elgersmad,

being from germany I have a problem to understand the term phelonic toroid-core ( air-stepup-transformer ). Can you show me a picture of how such a core looks like ?

Then the next question would be : How is the coupling of this phelonic-secondary done (in practical means) to K2 ?
By direct galvanic coupling ?

In your first post you talk about two iron-powder-cores ( yellow and white ) but in the circuit-diagramm i can spot only one iron-core.

Is there a chance that your add the cores so I can get a better idea of  what the real physical setup looks like.
Up until now there is much descriptions but I miss a pic of the physical arrangement. Since you claimed that you have already build such a device why not show the community here how this is done ?

Regards

Kator01
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 07, 2010, 06:49:53 AM
Hello elgersmad,

being from germany I have a problem to understand the term phelonic toroid-core ( air-stepup-transformer ). Can you show me a picture of how such a core looks like ?

Then the next question would be : How is the coupling of this phelonic-secondary done (in practical means) to K2 ?
By direct galvanic coupling ?

In your first post you talk about two iron-powder-cores ( yellow and white ) but in the circuit-diagramm i can spot only one iron-core.

Is there a chance that your add the cores so I can get a better idea of  what the real physical setup looks like.
Up until now there is much descriptions but I miss a pic of the physical arrangement. Since you claimed that you have already build such a device why not show the community here how this is done ?

Regards

Kator01

Phenolic Core is basically just a cardboard tube held together with a resin.  For Toroids it doesn't work out unless the core has some permeability, and that would keep it from being Phenolic.  Usually, it just looks like a Tesla Coil, or an AutoTransformer.  Unless there are two complete layers of wire, you usually won't see a phenolic toroid.  It may look like one set of windings on a cardboard tube, with a second set of windings and a second piece of wire used as a primary or secondary.  It may be one continous winding, that is tapped, similar to a center tap but it may be offset to a winding ratio like 1:10 or 10:1.

Special Transformers (http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_2/chpt_9/7.html)

I don't feel like drawing a picture of a piece of pipe.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 07, 2010, 07:22:48 AM
Leakage Inductance (http://www.voltech.com/Downloads/ATAppNotes/104-105-0-5A.pdf)

Even though using models of this sort does work out close in most cases, it's not the right result for designing resonant primary systems.  The leakage inductance, is the lowest value of inductance that your core will reach.  Then there is the highest.  From what I've been seeing, that would be Lp Min, and Lp Max would be measured with the secondary open.  Just like we use a model for saturation and BH curve matching, we need another equation to model this properly.  It is a linear response, and Lp Min in Henrys or the leakage inductance is about where your transformer winds up when the secondary is shorted, L Min, should change and work towards L Max in Henrys as the load increases.  I'm going to sit down with a transformer and inductance meter and potentiometer and work on my spice model for awhile.  I just need to use a volt meter and an ampere meter to calculate reflected impedance and convert it inductance at that frequency, making it dependant on the frequency of the source, just reverse the equation V=L*(di/dt) to find L.  THen Leakage is right for the model, and Mutual, is the same variable that it always was in an analog, and L can never be greater than L Max.

Then the model should match a real transformer by enough to be within a couple decimal places of an actual capacitors value required for the circuit compared to the simulator.  Just making it easier to buy the right parts in the first place or on the first try.  You'll still need the vacuum tuning capacitors to fine tune it anyway.  But, you'll be close enough to have all of the right parts the first time, or I will be.

In the spice model, it would mean getting ride of the series inductor in the transformer model for an inductor that was parallel to the ideal transformer that never dropped below the leakage value of inductance, and can rise higher than that pending upon the voltage and current of the output, keeping in mind the turn ratio in that equation.  Not only that since Inductance is ideal and the winding resistance added in as a value of resistor in the model, just what won't change doesn't.  Q will change as the inductance of the primary does as does in a real circuit.  Where L in henrys changes but the winding resistance and lenght of copper wire doesn't.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 07, 2010, 10:41:56 AM
Well, I looked into On Demand Water Heaters, to gain some insight on how much energy is used to heat water, thinking, that with time and the development of Ferrite Cores that will heat up but last after being burned in that about the same amount of heat will be generated from the same amount of energy.  That is typical.  36Kw is about enough power to run an all electric on demand water heater.  Where the main difference in this design would be using the transformer core as a heat source via a built in heat exchange.  That would consist of drilling holes in the core, potentially lining it with glass, or ceramic to keep it from leaking.  Of course, you'd use a 10KW core that when air normally kept it cool by convection, was cooled internally at a higher rate, therefore driving it at 100 KW would produce all of the heat, and the coolant would go to another heat exchange.

The Diesle Engine is closer to what I believe can be done (http://www.hi-z.com/papers/ICT%202001%20Beijing(China).pdf)

Here's the deal, the permeability of space is 1, and you can build a transformer that is nearly 98% effecient without a core.  At that point, the permeability of anything over one, is literally a gain in energy.  If that is in effect partially the Q of a resonant tank circuit, and in part the features seen in magnetic transmission lines in how they can compress a pulse with, and place 100 joules on a point of less of a second, and it is no apparent gain, the inductors still do not like the thought of a current reversal, and when self inductance is involved it will attempt to follow through.  We have more proof in other circuits designed.  The metglass pulse compression circuit is really just a good example.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 08, 2010, 11:07:39 AM
The first real problem is fixing the spice models.  I believe that this model is the solution.  Basically, the other simulator models don't result in a changing inductance on the primary winding.  By measuring the current and voltage on the primary and backwards calculating the reflected impedances, you eventually will get to the unknown value of LP_Variable.  Usually, in the vast majority of spice models, that's considered mutal inductance.  But, reflected impedance can be measured as a change in the inductance of the primary in response to a load on the secondary.  So, none of the simulation models are taking that into account in resonant models.  I just haven't presented the equations because I'm still plunking around with my calculator to be absolutely certain that I can find that one unknown with the invormation that the rest circuit provides.  I've sat here with my inductance meter, and the difference between open and shorted is always telling me the same thing, that anywhere in between is just a different fraction of the difference.  I also noticed that you can bet a bad reading due to the stray capacitance of the secondary of a step up transformer.  So, I will have to break out my oscilloscope, signal generator and re-test my audio transformer because, my inductance meter is operating at a frequency so high, that if there were only one inductor, it would be fine.  Since, the stray capacitance of 1 Henry worth of windings are there when the transformer is reversed to a step up from the 8 ohms, the change is so small that it's telling me that  my meter is close to the self resonant frequency of the secondary.  It will be easier to test an RF transformer I have.  Other than that I don't see anything wrong with the model.  As for how it ends up over unity, is in part due to electrostatic induction, and how voltage leads in an inductor, and current lags, that doesn't prevent the path of another primary from allowing for some of that to happen, and actually moving just a few more electrons that initially provided.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 08, 2010, 11:27:51 AM
You see, in a normal transformer with a complete magnetic circuit, Lenz Law is left out of the equation concerning core saturation but, it is real.  The counter EMF is producing a magnetizing current, even though it's the opposite polarity and like pole wind up facing in the transformer's core.  I have seen another model that takes into account, webbers and ampere turns, that can work but the core is approaching saturation when you combine both currents.  It's also changing the amount of the core available to accept or retain magnetic lines due to the opposing magnetic lines occupying the core's volume near the secondary.  That's why I was suggesting four L shaped pieces.  You could allow the rejected lines that don't fit from one set windings into the other set via the core to just eject into free space.  Then the primary would operate more like a moving magnet, even though nothing moves, and the secondary would just pick up the energy as if a magnet went flying past it at whatever rate of change occured.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 09, 2010, 01:29:32 AM
So, long as the ideal transformer model, or lossy core model are present in this schematic, and the transformer model is a step up, this set of equations fixes the primary of the model's reflected impedance as a change in inductance as is found in a real transformer.  Use only measured values, and if you haven't measured the values, then set them to zero such as stray capacitance.  Winding resistance should be measured.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 09, 2010, 05:58:22 AM
Oops
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: exnihiloest on November 09, 2010, 08:53:11 AM
I've built and tested the entire schematic.
...

I have already posted these questions:
Could you show us photos? I don't well understand how is connected the quartz tube.
And how did you lead measurements to demonstrate OU? Can you present them?

In at least 40 lines of your reply, I didn't find a single answer to one of my simple questions but simplistic generalities.
I must conclude you have no photos, you have neither measurement protocol nor measurement data, you have probably not built any thing, and you have only a ltspice shematic whose simulation module naturally disproves OU.
Case closed!

Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 09, 2010, 10:40:27 PM
I have already posted these questions:
In at least 40 lines of your reply, I didn't find a single answer to one of my simple questions but simplistic generalities.
I must conclude you have no photos, you have neither measurement protocol nor measurement data, you have probably not built any thing, and you have only a ltspice shematic whose simulation module naturally disproves OU.
Case closed!

Build 10 circuits that operate at 10 different frequencies and explain the results.  Oh, damn, you know that would just be a set of equations.  Other than that, I don't want you in my house, and pictures from inside, are just like letting you and everyone else inside.  I'm not taking pictures, and I could care less if you don't know anything about my furniture, carpet, shoe size or any of that.  I don't see how a picture of one transformer at my house, which looks just like another at anyone elses, is any different.  You can buy every single part I use.  If you want to see a doorknob capacitor or powdered iron toroid core just like mine, you can find those online too.  No need at all to waste my time packing a camera around my house just for you.  I won't do that because, I owe you no work of any kind at all. I don't owe you anything for your doubts.  It just tells me that you don't do the math, or don't have First Year College Electronics under your belt.  I've often found some kid trying to play bigshot hiding under show me, and capitalizing on nothing works as a declaration and constant.  You'd tell me a vacuum tube amplifier wouldn't work, or you couldn't use a magnetic amplifier for a louder boom box.  As long as you've haven't seen it, you'll maintain that it don't work.  The truth is more likely you don't even have enough an education to make or conclude with any math at all.  You may quote a scientist, that didn't work with this set of components.

Known Factors Concerning Parallel Tuned Circuits (http://www.tpub.com/content/neets/14181/css/14181_23.htm)

That condition exists for every capacitor in parallel with a primary winding of every transformer in the schematic.  What is written in the text is true except when Xc and XL are low at the resonant frequency.  1 Ohm, will result in a very high current and a caclatable high voltage.  I also know that when you build a circuit like that that the output impedance of a driver would need to be impedance matched to Xc and XL in parallel as if they were both DC resistances in order to see it reach it's peak output voltage and currents at resonance.  If Xc = 1 ohm, and XL = 1 ohm, the output impedance of the driver circuit must be less than 0.5 ohms.  If I use a plain old signal generator, I'll never see the applied voltage across the circuit, and it's impedance will never rise to the calculated value.  So, at 100 volts, I would need 200 amperes of current.  If Q of the inductor is 300 at that frequency, the impedance will rise to 300 ohms, and the 200 amperes of current will still be present in the parallel tank circuit.  The transformer arrangement amplifies the power.  Pout, in the final stage is equal to Pin * Q of the first inductor/primary winding at the resonant frequency, 8 Q of the second inductor/primary of the second transformer at the same resonant frequency etc for each stage added to the circuit.  At 1 Mhz it's easy to see values of Q that are all in the 100s or 1000s.  As long as you use the power as I had instructed, unloaded secondary plasma bulb, or extract the heat from the transformer cores, you will not interrupt the condition of the circuit's operation in such a manner as to change any of the critical component wise situations and be able to extract the energy as heat.

Thermoelectric Generator Cells (http://www.hi-z.com)  Liquid cooling the core, allows you to generate power.  With the plasma light, you can use solar cells to generate enough electricity to keep the bulb running.  But, you would need a running bulb to calculate how many cells.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: spinn_MP on November 09, 2010, 11:02:42 PM
Build 10 circuits that operate at 10 different frequencies and explain the results.  Oh, damn, you know that would just be a set of equations.  Other than that, I don't want you in my house, and pictures from inside, are just like letting you and everyone else inside.  I'm not taking pictures, and I could care less if you don't know anything about my furniture, carpet, shoe size or any of that.  I don't see how a picture of one transformer at my house, which looks just like another at anyone elses, is any different.  You can buy every single part I use.  If you want to see a doorknob capacitor or powdered iron toroid core just like mine, you can find those online too.  No need at all to waste my time packing a camera around my house just for you.  I won't do that because, I owe you no work of any kind at all.

It all fits.
Elgersmad, don't be silly. You came here with "just" an idea, not with the working (OU) device.
Try again, if you care.

Maybe some magic powder iron cores, or at least correct spice models for your sims.

Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 09, 2010, 11:30:23 PM
It all fits.
Elgersmad, don't be silly. You came here with "just" an idea, not with the working (OU) device.
Try again, if you care.

Maybe some magic powder iron cores, or at least correct spice models for your sims.

A skeptic doesn't require an education, just a negative opinion without substance.  How are you going to prove me wrong, without building one.  Upon inspection, will every single stage be properly tuned?  If you are so concieted, then I doubt you will be willing to admit being wrong, and sabbotage the circuit you build just to make your lie convincing.  You don't deny that you won't spend money on it.  You explain that by insisting it won't work.  So, you'll never produce anything substantial to prove me wrong.  At the point, I've already admitted to buying parts, and am shopping for them, you are not about to spend two cents in that effect.  I have plenty cores laying around, and none of them are magic.  I still get the results, and perfecting the simulator, only helps find the right value of capacitance the first time.  Electronics Workbench, already produces results that really reflect the real circuit outputs.  The difference is that the capacitor values you'll be finding that work in the simulations will not match the real values you'll wind using to get the same results in a actual circuit.  The results will match.  But, the simple fact that the spice model is not perfectly modeling the actual transformer in operation, makes those values of capcitance wrong.  So, even when you use measured values, you'll find that the final tuning will not be the same.  It doesn't change the schematic, it doesn't change the printed circuit board, it just makes it easier to get the right part values on the first trip to the store.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: spinn_MP on November 09, 2010, 11:48:04 PM
A skeptic doesn't require an education, just a negative opinion without substance.  How are you going to prove me wrong, without building one.  Upon inspection, will every single stage be properly tuned?  If you are so concieted, then I doubt you will be willing to admit being wrong, and sabbotage the circuit you build just to make your lie convincing.  You don't deny that you won't spend money on it.  You explain that by insisting it won't work.  So, you'll never produce anything substantial to prove me wrong.  At the point, I've already admitted to buying parts, and am shopping for them, you are not about to spend two cents in that effect.  I have plenty cores laying around, and none of them are magic.  I still get the results, and perfecting the simulator, only helps find the right value of capacitance the first time.  Electronics Workbench, already produces results that really reflect the real circuit outputs.  The difference is that the capacitor values you'll be finding that work in the simulations will not match the real values you'll wind using to get the same results in a actual circuit.  The results will match.  But, the simple fact that the spice model is not perfectly modeling the actual transformer in operation, makes those values of capcitance wrong.  So, even when you use measured values, you'll find that the final tuning will not be the same.  It doesn't change the schematic, it doesn't change the printed circuit board, it just makes it easier to get the right part values on the first trip to the store.

Lol, how typical. The guy is so full of himself that he cannot even see his own faults...

Oh, you're buying parts at the moment? Good luck!


"Elger's mad"?  Lol.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 09, 2010, 11:54:43 PM
With that kind of impedance match, if your transistors are directly coupled to the transformer, it will be over unity, if you use a bridge H MOSFET to driver the first stage it will be over unity, if you use a push pull configuration that directly drives the first stage, it will be over unity.

If you capacitor couple that circuit, you'll always be burning up that 200 amperes you saw the circuit use when you started it, and it will never be over unity.  You'll have proven that there are better ways to get an output.  When I look, if I don't see the transistor's output, either collector or base, source or drain connected directly to that first primary winding, I'll know you're just screwing with me and everyone else in the room.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: spinn_MP on November 10, 2010, 12:01:56 AM
With that kind of impedance match, if your transistors are directly coupled to the transformer, it will be over unity, if you use a bridge H MOSFET to driver the first stage it will be over unity, if you use a push pull configuration that directly drives the first stage, it will be over unity.
...

AMEN!

Ooops, sorry, what exactly is "overunity"?
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 10, 2010, 12:19:11 AM
AMEN!

Ooops, sorry, what exactly is "overunity"?

You are so cynical, that I'm skeptical of your personal life.  Unless, you send me a picture of your wife naked, I won't even stop to think that you even have a relationship with her.  If she does have any kid, I can't believe that they're yours, I don't believe you even know what to do with that.  Okay, now, you prove something.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: spinn_MP on November 10, 2010, 12:40:33 AM
You are so cynical, that I'm skeptical of your  life.  Unless, you send me a picture of your wife naked, I won't even stop to think that you even have  with her.  Okay, now, you prove something.
Sicko. I may be cynical, but it's you who definitely needs help.

YOU came here with all that fantastic claims.
It's YOU who need to prove something, remember?

Surely, a few skeptics won't stop you?




Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 10, 2010, 02:52:58 AM
Sicko. I may be cynical, but it's you who definitely needs help.

YOU came here with all that fantastic claims.
It's YOU who need to prove something, remember?

Surely, a few skeptics won't stop you?

If you had first year College Level Electronics, you would have already had all of that proof in class.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 10, 2010, 03:33:07 AM
What you are trying to say, is that the 67 Amperes of current doesn't exist between the capacitor and coil.  The operating Voltage is not at 100 volts RMS, and that if that were the primary winding of a transformer, it wouldn't work or be there.

Well, there is the simulation for you, and if you build the circuit, the AC power source, is only using 31.6 mA to keep all of that power there in the tank circuit.

Since, the bulb is only an open secondary by design, it will light up very brightly, with all of that energy.  Why?  Because, the secondary looks like there is no load on it.  The primary only looks like an inductor, and is stuck that way.  Any time another parallel tank circuit reaches it's peak output voltage and current, the next is fired up into resonance, and as a result Q of the next circuit is working together with the Q of the previous.  When it's fired up, the impedance of the parallel tank circuit goes high, and that makes the secondary of the first stage look or seem open due to the second tank circuit reaching resonance peak output values.  There's nothing more untested than your imagination.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 10, 2010, 03:35:51 AM
In addition to that, I have maintained, that you cannot extract the energy if you short the secondary, or load the secondary of any of the stages, especially the last stage.  I have maintained, that you can extract heat from the transformer cores, or use it to produce light with a bulb designed to operate as an open secondary winding.

At the point that it is over unity, you are extracting all of the energy in a manner that doesn't effect the operation or the condition of this circuit in operation.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 10, 2010, 08:44:30 AM
My spice simulator isn't showing me true AC readings correctly.  So, the Current Meters and the Voltage Meters are constantly changing values.  At the moment of the snapshot of circuit operation, there is 3,361.8 watts of power between the capacitor and coil, and only 1.68 watts being drawn from the power supply powering it.  That is without any extra stages adding to that effect.

In reality, I applied 100 Peak, which 200 volts peak to peak, or 70.7 volts RMS.  The readout on the Oscilloscope is in RMS.  Which is really 141.4 volts peak, 282.8 peak to peak or 100 volts RMS.

When you do the math and have meters that work properly, there's 100 volts at 100 amperes RMS present between the capacitor and coil, which totals out to 10KW.  There's approximately 740 watts for every horsepower.  Eventually, the core can heat up fast enough to keep a coolant running at a high enough number gallons per minute to keep the core within it's curie temperature range.  At the same time, you'll be able to use the transformer's core like a nuclear reactor's fuel rod, just by keeping it from overheating.  The heat extracted would then travel to a heat exchange unit that utilized the thermoelectric generator cells.  It would look allot like a radiator where one both sides of a flat rectangular pipe lined with thermoelectric cells.  If it were not for the thermoelectric cells it would look just like a car's radiator after that including the fan blowing the heat off of the thermoelectric cells.  Oddly enough, heavy water that's been loaded with minerals has a much higher boiling temperature, and you could use it to move the heat via a fluid out of the ferrite core.  As long as the coolant is non-magnetic, and non-conductive, it will pass with very little resistance to flow and fluid friction shouldn't change during operation.   If the coolant were conductive or ferromagnetic, it would get trapped in the core, and the pump would see the on state of the circuit as a kind of fluid brake. There are so many different configurations of heat exchanges, I would suggest an all ceramic heat exchange unit, and loading every other tube with ferrite slugs, and only passing fluid through every other tube.  A toroid core wouldn't be so easy to work with, but a U core or an E core could be.  The method would have to account for empty space that reduce the permeability of the form due to the volume left to coolant.  Ferrite does tend to get hot.  But, the quantity of ferrite would be much smaller than you'd normally see for that much power due to the use of a coolant other than air and the effecincy of the heat exchange.  That adds up to allot more math than I'm doing for a light bulb.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 10, 2010, 09:12:10 AM
I highly suggest that if you design the circuit that you use cores in sort of fashion.

1st stage Permeability of 2
2nd stage Permeability of 200
3rd stage Permeability of 20000

Or a similar set of ratios.  Any permeability greater than one will cause the magnetic lines to follow the core and magnetic circuit, so all you are really looking is something greater than one.  If 1.1 were used, then 110, and 11000 would be used.  When you have a series of step up transformers, you need more resistance in the winding of the previous stage's secondary, than there is in the next stage's primary and for the most part, nearly equal inductances.  Making the Q value of every secondary much lower than the Q of primary windings of each stage.  When you build the real circuits, you'll see that helps.  Those core values are ideal for 1:10 step up transformer turn ratios.  If your step up turn ratio is lower, then the difference between cores will be lower.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 11, 2010, 12:17:05 AM
Anyone know what propaganda is?

Propaganda is this circuit, when you don't need Uranium to do that.  When you tune it, you simply tune it up to the resistance of the filament of the bulb at it's resistance during operation.  When you first turn on a lightbulb, it's a short circuit, and the filiment's resistance is near zero, then as temperature rises, so does the resistance of the filiment.  So, here's a propadanda link:
Written to keep you in the dark, when ferrite would work better. (http://peswiki.com/index.php/Image:ResonantNuclearReactor_1000_rotated.jpg)
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 11, 2010, 12:30:32 AM
This is changing the subject, but when I was member of Tesla Pupman, I wrote about this same circuit.  A Ph. D Student then went on to write paper on the subject of multiple resonant circuits.  At that time I was working on circuit harmonics, where the fundimental frequency was on the output, and each an octave up to the input.  So, the input was resonant at 1MHz, the next stage 500KHz, and the last 250KHz in order to utilize larger and larger cores effectively.  It works, and quite well.  Sometimes, it will do some strange things but, the average power doesn't really change at all.  It just allows you to better utilize larger powdered iron cores or ferrite cores.

The real difference is that you'll need to run your simulations for a much longer time frame, and it would require a computer or allot time to calculate average power with some of the circuits.  It tends to maintain a chaotic output.  With real components, you do want to have every other ground 180 degrees out of phase to achieve maximum power.  Ground, shouldn't be starved of free electrons, and hot electrons work better.  The only way to manage that is alternate ground stage per stage and the computer may or may not model that correctly.  An electron can heat up to 10s of thousands of degrees, and never really change the temperature of the material, and if anything recognized as a static potential lost in the conductor.  If you just alternate grounds stage per stage, and keep them 180 degrees out of phase, you'll have hot electrons.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 11, 2010, 09:30:01 AM
 (http://www.metglas.com/downloads/powerlite.pdf)Metglas VS Powdered Iron (http://www.micrometals.com/thermalaging_index.html)

If you want a resonant reactor, that will produce more energy than it uses, and last a decade in operation, use metglas.  The thermal properties of metglas allow it to operate at 150C, where most ferrites and iron powders can't even come close.  Powdered Iron, or Ferrite will most likely not last a whole year, whereas metglas will operate at 150C, where powdered iron and ferrite deteroirate rapidly at must 200C.  Ferrite is cheap, and good enough to prove that it will work but, it is far from ideal.  Amorphous metglas is in there for the job and lasting at least a decade in operation if you are extracting heat from the core.  If you're working with lighting, then there is no need to see the cores overheat or change in temperature more than 10 degrees C in operation.  If it does heat up beyond that, then use a larger core.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 11, 2010, 10:17:39 PM
In this set of equations, do no square Pz2 in the formula.  When I wrote it, it's just a reference to a power equation, and I was remembering that I had to reverse the square by finding the square root.  So, when you work the equation, Pz and Pz2 should be the same and equal.  Do not actually square it.  Rw, does need to be squared before being subtracted.

I appologize for my unwritten mental note being stuck there.  It should look like the second set of equations.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 11, 2010, 10:52:40 PM
Now, this equation should work better with the simulator, where T, is actually the time step.  It uses that to calculate angular frequency at the moment and convert it into the equivalent of 2*pi*f.  Which then takes frequency away from the AC source, and calculate it as rapidly as the load might change, expanding the merit of the model.

Stick with the 2*pi*f equation for now.  I keep trying to figure out how to convert di/dt to XL, or frequency.  di/dt, for any given moment is really the quarter frequency of a triangle wave.  Sine, is a different function.  But, the way the simulator steps, the adjustment would or could make it more accurate to a smaller time step.  I don't see this one working because, the time step doesn't directly translate to a frequency.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 14, 2010, 12:03:15 AM
I sat down today to plot a graph of the Primary's Inductance in relation to the load on the secondary.  I did find that as I moved the potentiometer from 1 Meg to 0 Ohms, the inductance of the primary windings do change without question.  I also found that at about 70K Ohms, it has maxed out as if the secondary were open, and it didn't matter from there up.  At that point, I realized that LMax for LP_Variable is really required to keep the model accurate.  Where, LMin, is really the Leakage inductance, and LP_Variable, is usually defined as the Mutual Inductance.  So, the whole truth is that in using circuit simulations, the models that are typically used will not produce actual results due to the simple fact that the Primary's inductance will not change.  Most models do not support that event, which is typical and normal for the operaton of any transformer having either a step up or step down turn ratio.  In the circuit simulators, it has become obviouse too me that you cannot just flip the schematic model, but would require two for the same transformer.  One model used when the transformer is used as a step up, and another to be used when the same part is being used as a step down transformer.  LMax, is the stopping point in the inductance calculation based upon the formula/equation I provided.  Until I get a decade box, I won't be able to plot a primary inductance to load resistance plot to tell me if it's linear, which I believe is true, or a curved change.  I must check that.  When you design your spice model equaton, you have to remember to write the equation to stop at LMax, which is or should be a measured value of inductance.  The models should always be based upon measurements.  Then I'll link it to my computer, and preform a frequency sweep, and I wish I had a programmable Resistive Decade Box.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 14, 2010, 12:19:45 AM
The solution if the graph is linear is simple.  But, not if your simulator doesn't allow for an IF THEN programming statement in the code for the model. 
By placing this code at the end of the calculation done to determin LP_Variable, it fixes the model.

IF LP_Variable > LMax then
LP_Variable = LMax
END IF
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 15, 2010, 12:32:27 AM
Now, concerning all whom have updated and upgraded their transformer models before spending any money, use the circuit simulator to insure that they've managed to get close to the right values of capacitors to use with each stage of the circuit.

RFParts is the Place to shop (http://www.rfparts.com/product.html)

It's the one place you can get all of the capacitors that won't overheat during circuit operation.  Can't do much if you don't pay attention to your core sizes and ampere turns.  Both saturation and overheating are a problems that you will want to avoid.  There is only one real special part to order and buy and that would be the glass coil that needs to be filled with a gas and evacuated to 0.1 to 0.01 Torr in order to respond correctly and produce a plasma.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 15, 2010, 12:36:43 AM
This is when I sit down to think about if there is anyone that can really follow instructions.  This is when I look at it, and think about who really reads it, and how many people really get thier hands on the circuits before they draw conclusions.  I've built these circuits and they do work.  Other than that, it's a matter of what you choose to believe.  You cannot discover a place, if you never leave to find it.  It just reminds me of how easy it was to think that the world was flat.  As long as no-one looks, no-one knows that it's not and anyone will argue that it is so long as nobody moves.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: Kator01 on November 22, 2010, 02:35:41 AM
Hi elgersmad,

sounds like you are discouraged but I tell you that only 1 out 100 would be able to do a hand-on experiment with such a topic here because this hf-stuff is not easy and needs a good background-knowledge. Despite this so many things are going on in these times that you have to take into consideration that if there is 1 out of 100 .. does he have the time and the circumstances to do it ?
Concernig hf I speak of experience...

Regards

Kator01
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: elgersmad on November 22, 2010, 06:00:23 AM
Hi elgersmad,

sounds like you are discouraged but I tell you that only 1 out 100 would be able to do a hand-on experiment with such a topic here because this hf-stuff is not easy and needs a good background-knowledge. Despite this so many things are going on in these times that you have to take into consideration that if there is 1 out of 100 .. does he have the time and the circumstances to do it ?
Concernig hf I speak of experience...

Regards

Kator01

I do realize that is true.  I've read some part of the census's statistics.  I also believe that this Forum in that we are all pursuing clean energy, would also realize that if we are truly serious, this should also be the place to report scams, and admit failure.  Idealistically, this should be the place we all accept that everything has not been done, and not every possibility looked into in enough detail.  The man who wrote the laws of thermodynamics, rode a horse drawn carriage to work, and that ain't enough technology to make a prediction about what the future would hold, and he in no way in a place or time to have it all, nor have tested it all to have really known what would and would not be possible.  In 1930, you may have predicted that man never go to the moon, and died before it ever came to pass.  It doesn't mean that we didn't.

I started a new thread over at mythbusters forums.  I pretty well end it with a better set of transformers T1 through T3, so if you do have experience, my choices in wire has changed to Litz wire, and my choice of cores has changed.  T1 is still the same air core.  T2 is a stack of four T-400-2.  T3 is up in the air and not if you special order Metglas cores for that operating frequency.  Pricey.
Title: Re: Over Unity Lightbulb
Post by: baroutologos on November 22, 2010, 07:35:28 AM
Anyone knowledgeable enough that tried what this man says?