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Author Topic: Relativistic interpretation of Casimir effect Expanded  (Read 3951 times)

Offline froarty

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Relativistic interpretation of Casimir effect Expanded
« on: November 08, 2010, 01:45:42 PM »
Relativistic interpretation of Casimir effect Expanded
Jun 28,2010
  A  relativistic interpretation of Casimir effect could help explain the numerous claims of  abnormal states of hydrogen and deuterium  by researchers around the world. Fractional hydrogen, hydrino, metal like deuterium clusters and ultra dense deuterium are all terms associated with reports of excess heat under diverse conditions from wet electrochemistry with Pd co-deposition cathodes (Pam Boss), to disassociated hydrogen inside a skeletal catalyst (Randell Mills) or loaded into Pd nano powders (Arata-Zhang) .  A 2005  paper by Jan Naudts on relativistic hydrogen and his suggestion that the hydrino is relativistic hydrogen points in the right direction but  fails to elaborate on the unique source of the relativistic environment.   A 1999 paper “The Light Velocity Casimir Effect” by Tom Ostoma and Mike Trushyk  proposes the Casimir cavity as a  relativistic environment where the velocity of light appears to increase relative to outside the cavity. 
Quote: Our review of the physics literature has not revealed any previous work on the time delay analysis of photon propagation through the ordinary quantum vacuum or any evidence to contradict our hypothesis of photon vacuum delay, presumably because of the precedent set by Einstein’s postulate of light speed constancy. 
Suppose we can place a tiny observer A and his clocks and rulers (somehow) in between the Casimir plates. We would find for observer A that his measurement of the speed of light is the same as the conventional value! However for an observer B outside the plates in the laboratory frame, his measurement does show an increase in light velocity through the plates. Furthermore, the individual space and time measurements ‘dlab’ and ‘tlab’ made by observer B in the laboratory frame do not agree with the same measurements of ‘dplate’ and ‘tplate’ made by our tiny observer A inside the Casimir plates. The general relativists could argue that the 4D space-time inside the Casimir plates is altered compared to outside, and that the light velocity is still an absolute constant in all cases! This argument results because of the crucial importance of light propagation to the fundamental nature of space and time measurements, a theme that was first championed by Einstein. This same controversy rears it’s ugly head in gravity where we are forced to choose between the two experimentally indistinguishable views; 4D curved space-time in general relativity and variable light velocity proposal of EMQG. It turns out to be impossible to distinguish between curved 4D space-time in gravitational frames, and variations in light velocity in gravitational frames experimentally
[ /Quote]

   In a relativistic interpretation, Casimir Cavities  like the 10 nm pores  in the skeletal catalysts used by Black Light Power, the 100nm cavities proposed in the Haisch-Moddel prototype or  those formed by the packing geometry  between grains of nano powders used by Arata-Zhang experience reduced ZPE  which equates to negative equivalent  acceleration for any matter inside the cavity.  From a perspective outside the cavity hydrogen and deuterium appear smaller and faster due to Lorentz contraction and time dilation.  This is further supported by a 1996 paper, “Cavity QED”   by Zofia Bialynicka-Birula which proposes an abrupt break in isotropy of  time and gravity.  Unlike the slow gradient of a gravitational well this break in isotropy occurs suddenly near the cavity walls as a result of   suppression of vacuum fluctuations. These fluctuations are restricted inside the cavity greatly accelerating what Puthoff terms “pressure” on the outside of the cavity providing the walls with an additional “equivalent” density. This pseudo density accumulates  gravity much more rapidly than normal mass forming a gentle gravitational gradient/reservoir distributed outside the cavity walls.  These suppressing cavities have one ability that is unshared with macro scale mass/gravitation  because they can  release some of the accumulating  pressure from the reservoir into the interior of the cavity as a permanent high speed stream – vortex  as long as the cavity is small enough to avoid depleting the reservoir. The tiny hole/cavity treats the Casimir plates like the sails of a sailing ship creating a reservoir which the holes/cavities are too small to deplete. Like a sailing ship the wind speed dumped through holes in the sail can be many times faster than the ambient wind speed – where mass normally slows time like a wind sail, the release of  this accumulated pressure through a tiny aperture can accelerate time faster than the ambient which created the pressure. This vortex stream represents “negative” equivalent acceleration or a gravity “hill” instead of a “well” where time is accelerated instead of  the relativistic deceleration associated with a gravity well.  From the perspective of an observer inside the cavity it is time outside the cavity that is slowed.  If the Casimir plates are not braced apart we would see the classic Casimir effect where the plates are pushed together.           


   In a relativistic interpretation the longer vacuum fluctuation wavelengths that standard  theory claims are displaced from the cavity are actually still present inside the cavity but  appear shorter in wavelength from our perspective because they are pushing Space – Time  between the plates into a hill.  The waveforms  take a temporal detour and effect a Lorentziancontraction  to  fit easily between cavity walls spaced closer than it’s own wavelength! Below a constant frequency waveform is rotated on the Z axis to appear faster from our perspective but an observer inside the cavity would be equally rotated and see no change in the waveform at all. The contraction is accomplished in a relativistic manner. 
 This is not the standard case of relativistic contraction where a particle is accelerated to near luminal velocity but rather using suppression to modify the inertial frames inside the cavity in a “tail wagging the dog” sort of scenario such that Space-Time itself reshapes under the influence of the crowded vacuum fluctuations taking any matter that happens to be inside the cavity along for the relativistic ride.   The Calvet paper  makes the case for this relativistic interpretation of Casimir effect being non- conservative.   This results in an inverted form of Lorentz contraction because the rate at which the time axis intercepts the  gas atoms on the spatial axis inside the cavity is accelerated compared to the standard isotropic value outside the cavity. There is no need for near luminal velocity of  the gas atoms on the spatial axis inside the cavity. The contraction under these circumstances becomes spatially symmetrical not restricted to the  axis of  spatial acceleration as in normal Lorentz contraction. There is no Pythagorean relationship to derive Gamma under these conditions because the cavity is directly manipulating the time axis experienced by gas atoms inside the cavity.  This  represents a  negative form of equivalent acceleration still based on accumulating mass but accelerated by Casimir geometry and then inverted by releasing this accumulation into a concentrated stream where the target atoms reside in the cavity. The tiny defects in lattices of Casimir geometry  behave like little holes in a ships sail where the wind whistles through the holes at many times the ambient wind speed filling the sails. These holes must be tiny compared to the pressure accumulated by the plate area in order to create a permanent vortex.                   



 The effect is powered by the  suppression of  vacuum fluctuations between conductive  plates in Casimir geometry. Like a magnetic field this force is often considered conservative but  when braced apart to create permanent fields and combined with the ZPE present in gas motion (helium remains liquid even at absolute zero) there occurs an  opportunity to  organize and rectify this energy.  Most proposed methods of releasing excess heat share a common requirement for monatomic gas loaded into a catalyst/cavity.  I prefer an ash less chemical process similar to the Black Light process where monatoms  translate to relativistic or fractional states inside theCasimir cavity before forming fractional covalent or ionic bonds. “fractional”  h1 (h1/x)  becomes “fractional” h2 (h2/x),  falls to a lower energy level releasing energy and then  finds the diatomic bond opposes  further translation of the individual orbitals being induced by random gas motion relative to a tapestry of different Casimir geometries.  When this random motion pushes a fractional h2/x  to a new value of x the change in Casimir field gradient will disassociate it back into a new fractional h1/x appropriate for the new location restoring atoms to their atomic energy levels -ready to repeat the cycle over and over courtesy of  natures desire for the lowest energy state, random motion of gas based on the uncertainty principle and  changes in fractional states due to Casimir force.  The energy transfer to the wall of the cavity when the fractional atoms or diatoms fall to lower energy state is known as [From wikipedia]  Förster resonance energy transfer (abbreviated FRET), also known as fluorescence resonance energy transfer, resonance energy transfer (RET) or electronic energy transfer (EET), is a mechanism describing energy transfer between two chromophores.    A donor chromophore, initially in its electronic excited state, may transfer energy to an acceptor chromophore (in proximity, typically less than 10 nm) through nonradiative dipole–dipole coupling. This mechanism is termed “Förster resonance energy transfer” and is named after the German scientist Theodor Förster.  When both chromophores are fluorescent, the term “fluorescence resonance energy transfer” is often used instead, although the energy is not actually transferred by fluorescence. In order to avoid an erroneous interpretation of the phenomenon that (even when occurring between two fluorescent chromophores) is always a nonradiative transfer of energy, the name “Försterresonanceenergy transfer” is preferred to “fluorescence resonance energy transfer” – although the latter enjoys common usage in scientific literature. FRET is analogous to near field communication, in that the radius of interaction is much smaller than the wavelength of light emitted. In the near field region, the excited chromophore emits a virtual photon that is instantly absorbed by a receiving chromophore. These virtual photons are undetectable, since their existence violates the conservation of energy and momentum, and hence FRET is known as a radiationless mechanism. From quantum electrodynamical calculations, it is determined that radiationless (FRET) and radiative energy transfer are the short- and long-range asymptotes of a single unified mechanism.[/From wikipedia]                 

The theoreticl papers mentioned earlier “The Light Velocity Casimir Effect” and “Cavity QED” , and the math papers by Jan Naudts and Ron Bourgoin which indicate that the hydrino state is actually just relativistic hydrogen make a case for the relativistic interpretation of Casimir effect.   Numerous papers have been published on anomalous heat generated by reactions between atomic gases and catalysts or nano powders. The reactions remain the subject of intense research and controversy spread across several fields of research. LENR, cold fusion, solid state systems used by Arata in Japan or Mills at Black Light Power. Most of these researchers report unusual states of matter such as Fractional hydrogen, hydrino, deuterium clusters or ultra dense deuterium. Recent US government reports  conclude the anomalous heat is undeniable and further research is warranted regardless if this is a nuclear or another as yet unidentified energy source.  Although The Haisch Moddel patent  mentions Casimir cavitiesmost papers only mention catalytic materials, a little research however reveals the Casimir geometry of the pores in the skeletal catalysts used by Black Light Power or the spacing between the Pd nano powders used by Arata. Another suggestion of a relationship between catalytic action and change in Casimir force is from a recent report by Peng Chen at Cornell that catalytic action as measured with an ATM only occurs at the openings and defects in a nanotube.  Based on papers describing relativistic states of hydrogen and Cavity QEDI am proposing a relativistic interpretation of Casimir effect.                 

Below is a basic description of Reifenschweiler effect from the website of Ludwik Kowalski;                 

Ludwik Kowalski; 11/xx/2006 Department of Mathematical Sciences Montclair State University, Upper Montclair, NJ, 07043
About two months ago Albert Alberts, from Netherlands, mentioned some observations made by Otto Reifenschweiler. This was on the restricted Internet list for CMNS researchers. Asked for a clarification, Alberts wrote:                 

 â€œThe ‘Reifenschweiler effect’ is the observation that the beta-decay of tritium half-life 12.5 years is delayed reversibly by about 25-30% when the isotope is absorbed in 15 nm titanium-clusters in a temperature window in between 160-275 C. Remarkably at 360 C the original radioactivity reappears. The effect is absent in bulk metal. Discovered around 1960/1962 at Philips Research Eindhoven, The Netherlands Reifenschweiler extensively discussed his observation with o.a Casimir (the director of research at the time), Kistemaker (ultracentrifuge expert), and although no satisfactory explanation was found, R. was allowed to publish it. At the time a unique example as to how an electronic environment might affect nuclear phenomena.”                   

 In a private e-mail message Alberts, who used to be a physics teacher, wrote: “I don’t know if that work was replicated, he was invited to, I think, Sandia and later to Los Alamos to demonstrate the effect, instigated by a fellow named Cox. What I do know is that it was replicated in the Philips labs many times, supervised by the eminent Casimir at the time. The beta-rays were detected by Geiger-Mueller counters, at the time Philips had the most advanced evaporation/evacuation techniques possible. Even electron microscopy. The work was criticized by a German fellow, but Reifenschweiler retaliated. That stuff should be in his reprints.” He also wrote that he is in contact with Dr. Reifenschweiler (who is quite old) and that he has some old manuscripts. Subsequently I asked Alberts to compose an essay on Reifenschweiler effect. He agreed. His essay will be shown below as soon as it arrives. I think Reifenschweiler himself will assist in writing a good summary. Meanwhile let me mention that a French researcher, Fabrice David, also summarized Reifenschweiler effect in 2004. That was the topic of his presentation at ICCF11 (11th International Conference on Cold Fusion) in Marseilles                     

The Reifenschweiler effect described by Otto Reifenschweiler in his paper ”Cold Fusion and Decrease of Tritium Radioactivity” describes a small delay in the half life of tritium in contact with titanium powder while a patent by Heinrich Hora “Low Cost elimination of Long-Lived Nuclear waste” describes a large acceleration in radioactive half life of radioactive materials in a catalytic environment. This seems consistent with the segregation of time dilations  in a relativistic interpretation of Casimir effect.  The geometry of different Casimir materials may favor or disfavor the loading of gas atoms into the cavity vs outside the cavity. Those cases where the exterior of the cavity is favored could explain the claims of  anomalous cooling and Reifenschweiler effect.   IMHO you have a dispersed accumulation of pressure on the exterior surfaces of the cavity plates forming a reservoir that only slightly slows time while  feeding a very fast permanent stream through the tiny defect or hole into the cavity between the plates which greatly accelerates time (think venturi) for any gas atoms inside the narrow cavity. Energy suppression due to Casimir geometry results in a pseudo density/gravity of the plate material (Casimir plates are able to accumulate gravity/ oppose vacuum energy at an accelerated rate on their exteriors compared to normal mass because of an insulating effect afforded by the suppression on their interior side). Reports of anomalous cooling could also be related to variations in the type of atomic gas  catalyst and test conditions which could vary the balance between gas populations loading into the cavity vs the reservoir.  I would expect any reports of  anomalous cooling to be a much smaller than reports of anomalous heat for the same reasons reported delays of radioactive  half lives are much smaller than reported claims of accelerated half lives (only a 25-30% delay is mentioned in the Reifenschweiler effect).   

 In Physics clocks in different inertial frames always appear slower to the remote observer regardless of which frame happens to be more accelerated or which frame the remote observer happens to occupy similar to the way an object always appears smaller based on absolute displacement from the observer regardless of which direction the displacement occurs (deriving Gamma). The Beta decay / particle emission rate corresponds directly to the photon bouncing between the mirrors in the classic accelerated spaceship vs the stationary observer used to illustrate the derivation of gamma (time dilation factor) even though the relativistic environment in the Casimir effect is created from equivalent velocity instead of  spatial velocity.  Changes in Beta decay correspond to time dilation and can be in either direction depending on whether the gas particles are inside the fast moving cavity or in the exterior resivoir accumulating outside the cavity. IMHO the multiplying factor for extended half lives (delayed decay) should be much smaller than the multiplying factor for reduced half lives (accelerated decay)  because time inside a Casimir cavity is greatly accelerated trying to deplete a large distributed resivoir in a very small area while outside the cavity time is only slightly delayed by a pseudo density over a very large surface area similar to the sail of a ship – the large surface area accumulates a “pressure” but each area of the sail only contributes a negligible amount of this pressure to the tiny hole in the sail forming a venturi. If the hole is small enough you form a permanent vortex that can’t deplete the sail.

from article on STARDRIVEOn Mar 2, 2010, at 12:16 PM, Bernard Haisch wrote:

“A thought experiment clarifying the Haisch-Moddel patent (7,379,286) concept

Imagine a monatomic hydrogen gas exposed to Lyman-alpha radiation at 121.5 nm which excites the electron into the n=2 level. Now let some of the gas enter a pipe which blocks the radiation. The hydrogen electron will drop back to the ground state, n=1. We can certainly capture the emitted radiation in the pipe. On exiting the pipe the hydrogen is again exposed to Lyman-alpha radiation and the electron is excited into the n=2 level again.

The process is easily done but not useful because we are simply capturing some of the energy we put there in creating the Lyman-alpha radiation. However this clearly shows that there is no correlation between the electron energy levels and any kind of potential energy relevant to motion into and out of the pipe. The excitation and de-excitation do not produce any forces pulling the hydrogen into or out of the pipe. They are independent processes.

Substitute zero-point radiation for Lyman-alpha and a Casimir cavity for the pipe and assume that because of the Casimir suppression of zero-point radiation there is a temporary reduction in the ground state of the atomic electron (as shown by Puthoff and by Cole) while in the cavity and you have the proposed patent. (Note that this does not produce any so-called stable hydrinos.)”

Bernard Haisch  (also see  Brilliant Disguise: Light, Matter and the Zero-Point Field )

This thought experiment above by Bernard Haisch elicited the thread below on Vortex-l with my subsequent
comments included.
Francis X Roarty

[Vo]:An alternative to LENR
On Fri Fri, 25 Jun 2010 14:42 Jones Beene said:
Can the Arata-type experiment (in general) be explained solely by a Lamb
shift modality of the type that Haisch claims – in his patent?
 I would not go so far as to suggest “solely” but it certainly could be a contributor. The Haisch – Moddel prototype should work with or without noble gas but still requires monatomic atoms in order to translate to these exploitable states, this means the h2 or d2 in an Arata – type experiment would need to be disassociated while the noble gases used in the H-M patent should work at room temperature being inherently monatomic – this further supports my contention that it is the diatomic bond that is opposing the translation of the orbitals constituting the diatom because the noble gases in the H-M patent are much larger than hydrogen but are presumed to translate unopposed. I remain on the fence regarding the pinch mechanism itself which is beyond my skill set but agree if correct it is a far better way to exploit the cavity environment then the chemical reactions suggested by Mills or even my own relativistic ash less oscillating reaction between h1 and h2 states due to changes in Casimir geometry opposing diatomic motion.

If so, we would be suggesting that any helium seen (it is often seen) was
already present in the active material, probably as contamination from
extended ball milling in air, and that this helium had survived bake-out,
which is not an unreasonable assumption since tIhere is so little of it.

 I would not rule out a small amount of fusion to account for the helium as a result of the energy released by the H-M, Mills or other ZPE methods.

In 1947 Willis Lamb carried out an experiment using microwaves to stimulate
RF transitions between orbital levels of hydrogen. There was an anomaly and
the energy difference found was a rise of about 1 GHz for one orbital
compared to the other. This energy is supplied (or detracted) by the quantum
vacuum, but there is normally no net gain or loss.
This particular difference is a looping effect of QED – quantum
electrodynamics, and can be interpreted as the influence of virtual photons
from the ZPE which have been emitted and re-absorbed by the atom. In QED the
electromagnetic field is quantized but its lowest state is NOT zero. Thus,
there exist small zero-point oscillations that cause electrons to execute
rapid oscillatory motions known by the lovely German word: zitterbewegung;
but normally these vibrations reach thermal equilibrium in an ambient range
near 300 Kelvin – and are vibrating in the terahertz range, all of which is
conservative, but ..
The value of the Lamb shift has a tiny mass-energy equivalent, which is
about 4^-6 eV = 1 GHz = 4^-23 joules (correct me if I got this wrong) which
is not much to get excited about; and on top of that: the ups and downs
usually cancel each other out . but if your Casimir cavity is an oscillator
in the 10s of terahertz (slightly above ambient) and you make a particular
nanopowder in the form known as “quantum dots”, such that there is a range
of coherency which can be reached with a thermal trigger, then the gain can
(arguably) be made additive and sequential: well, that would be the
underlying hypothesis for the Haisch claim, and the non-nuclear gain via ZPE
via the Lamb shift as the pumping mechanism.
 Addative and sequential energy gain suggests a finite value but in a relativistic environment where Time dilation comes into play becomes considerable.

There could be LENR activity as well, in the same experiment – which is in
addition to this; but for the time being, let’s stick with the goal of
looking for a justifiable way to explain net energy gain (or loss) without
any nuclear reactions. Can it be found?
Probably. It should also be mentioned that in a slightly different geometry
of nanoparticle, there could be a cooling effect, instead of a heating
effect, which can also be derived from additive and sequential Lamb shifts
(with coherent asymmetry) – which will have the net result to take the host
material below ambient in temperature. This would be the key to
falsifiability – an occasional net cooling effect, based on geometry and
This corresponds to the well-known Casimir repulsive effect (as opposed to
the normal Casimir attractive force). There can be this asymmetry (plus or
minus), within narrow geometric ranges, and when coherence is reached, the
result can be net heating, or net cooling (or neither or both if the
material is sloppily prepared).

 The Reifenschweiler effect described by Otto Reifenschweiler in his paper “Cold Fusion and Decrease of Tritium Radioactivity” describes a small delay in the half life of tritium in contact with titanium powder while a patent by Heinrich Hora “Low Cost elimination of Long-Lived Nuclear waste” describes a large acceleration in radioactive half life of radioactive materials in a catalytic environment. This seems consistent with the segregation of time dilations in a Casimir system, you have an accumulation of pressure outside the cavity forming a reservoir that slows time for any gas atoms occupying this area while also supplying a permanent focused stream into the tiny mouth of the cavity which greatly accelerates time for gas atoms inside the cavity. The geometry of different Casimir materials may favor or disfavor the loading of these gas atoms into the cavity vs outside the cavity in the reservoir. energy suppression due to Casimir geometry causes a decrease in vacuum energy inside the cavity, this decrease is concentrated inside the cavity to balance an equal but distributed reservoir of energy outside the cavity (Casimir plates are able to accumulate vacuum energy at an accelerated rate compared to normal mass) . Reports of anomalous cooling could be related to the type of atomic gas and catalyst under test where conditions could vary the balance between gas populations loading into the cavity vs the reservoir, I would expect any reports of cooling to be a much smaller anomaly than excess heat just like delays of half lives are much smaller than claims of accelerated half lives. The interface between the cavity and gas populations is far more efficient and concentrated while the interface to the reservoir is diffused over the outer plate area and may be less inviting (repel?) to the gas populations. 

It can be deduced roughly that to get to one joule per unit volume of active
material in gain(loss), there must be at least about 10^10 sites (which are
active Casimir cavities in vibrational coherence per that same volume). In
the context of an Arata-type experiment there would be about 5000 joules of
excess heat, spread out over about 800 minutes, which on first glance could
be consistent with Lamb shift heating via Casimir cavities if there was a
few cc of active powder present, which was optimized for cavities.
However, the best reason to consider the Lamb shift as an alternative
hypothesis to LENR is IF:
1) No transmutation products or ash are found, other than helium, which
can be explained as non-nuclear contamination
2) No gamma radiation is seen during or immediately after the run, and
no neutrons
3) On occasion, there is a cooling effect instead of a heating effect,
or during the same run there is both a heating effect followed by a cooling
effect, both of which are statistically valid.