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Author Topic: The "Diode"  (Read 27545 times)

Offline IcyBlue

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The "Diode"
« on: December 31, 2005, 10:02:38 AM »
Hi all,
did anyone else notice that the diode of the testatika shows a striking similarity to what P.T. Farnsworth had patented under #2,189,358 in 1937 ? A RF-oszillator device that only needs a DC potential and a passive external resonant circuit to operate. The only drawback I see so far is that you need to use special metals or specially treated ones - preferably caesium coated - to create the cathode.

Now the central circuit of the converter becomes quite clear: The 'diode' is forming a closed-loop oszillator with C3 and L1 between the cathode and the anode. The arrangement choosen is a series resonant circuit that has the lowest impedanz a f0. The both UPR chokes are common RF chokes that provide the HVDC to the diode-oszillator and decouple the RF from the source. L2 dampes the oszillation and uses the power to heat the filament. Since the filament is RF heated, a better ionisation takes place. (BTW: it is uncertain if the diode actually has a filament. This kind of rf-heating also would have some maybe undesired back-coupling onto the circuit. Apart from this for a electron cascade to build up a high-vacuum is needed instead of a however thin ionizable medium like gas.)

The diode itself according to the patent is a evacuated glass-tube which insofar seems logical to me as I don't think baumann did put his construction in a glass tube just for fun - if it would not be needed.

So what needs to be done now is to build such a oszillator tube, put it into that rather simple arrangement and measure its behavior with a trustworthy setup.

I don't really think this is (the main or only) source of excess energy in the converter, but it looks at least as rather convincing source for the HVRF. Potter denotes this diode as rectifier, what does not make any sense to me. In the video this device is denoted just as diode - what is not said is that it is not a simple diode. So it was only the half truth, misleading to the assumption it would be a simple rectifier diode.

kind regards,
Icy.
« Last Edit: December 31, 2005, 12:02:36 PM by IcyBlue »

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

The "Diode"
« on: December 31, 2005, 10:02:38 AM »

Offline Steven Dufresne

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Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #1 on: December 31, 2005, 07:34:01 PM »
Hi Icy,
Good find! The only problem I have with it is that I've examined the videos extensively and can
find only two wires connecting to the diode at the top of the 3kW testatika. Any other wires must
be very well hidden.

Having said that, I still think you may be on to something here. In fact I'd carry it further and
apply it to some of the cans as well. They are all enclosed in a glass/clear plastic container.
Even though Farnsworth's patent says that the cathodes should preferably be unperforated,
that may not apply to the way they're used in the testatika. For example there are multiple
concentric perforated cylinders in some cases so the perforations may be neccessary for electron
propagation through multiple cylinders.

This also jibes with Marinov's description of what he saw in the small machine's two big cans -
a central wire spiral surrounded by one/two grid cylinders.

By the way, the patent does say you can get away with anodes that are made of just aluminium.
The caesium coated version is a preference.

Either way, thanks for pointing this out.
-Steve

Offline Steven Dufresne

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Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #2 on: December 31, 2005, 07:48:17 PM »
> By the way, the patent does say you can get away with anodes that are made of just aluminium.
> The caesium coated version is a preference.

Sorry, that should have been "cathodes", not "anodes".
-Steve

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #2 on: December 31, 2005, 07:48:17 PM »
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Offline IcyBlue

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Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #3 on: December 31, 2005, 08:58:11 PM »
Hi Steve,
Good find! The only problem I have with it is that I've examined the videos extensively and can find only two wires connecting to the diode at the top of the 3kW testatika. Any other wires must be very well hidden.
Actually, if it's a diode like that one described in the patent, then you need only *two* wires. I always doubted that it is a headed thermoionic rectifier, also after closely inspecting the photos and videos. What was suposed to be a glowing filament to me more looked like a image reduction artefact. It is true, not all machines seem to have a glass tube on the first glance, but at least one of the smaller machines employes a alternative version of the same device which has also been patented by Farnsworth, where the electrodes are at the end of the tube and the tube itself is completely covered by dense copper windings. In contrast to the other variant where the copper spiral maybe just forms a electrode, the winding here is used as a simple coil for generating a homogenious magnet field and covers the actual electrodes behind from sight. The great difference in the windings suggests this. This version then probably will create two electronzyclons that oppose each other and have the anode ring exactly in the middle of both. Because of it's symetry, this variant needs to have 3 wires. I also would not build it in a rectangular tubing as had been done. For the third one that seems to have no housing at all I still have no explanation. This all seems to be augmented by the video where Luzi Cathomen was asked about what is inside this tube. His answer: "magnets and things.". This all sofar is straight in line with farnsworth patents.

Quote
This also jibes with Marinov's description of what he saw in the small machine's two big cans - a central wire spiral surrounded by one/two grid cylinders.
yes, but only if they are capacitive transformers. I am not so sure about this. If he said what you quoted, then this gives a total of three grids, one outer and two inner. I expected this, but they are differently wired than in all diagrams that I have seen so far. The next best thing this all reminds me of is a ionic triode. The grid from which the current is drawn is in exactly the same position as the  supressor grid is in a pentagrid tube. I remember someone already has tried a 'ionic triode setup' ( http://www.blazelabs.com/e-exp18.asp ).

Quote from: Wikipedia Pentagrid Tube
Note: that although this valve (tube) contains 7 electrodes and is thus technically a heptode, this device is usually referred to in technical literature as a pentagrid, to distinguish it from a true heptode. The grid that carries the input signal has to have a screen grid on either side to isolate it from the oscillator grid. The remaining grid is the suppressor grid to combat secondary emission.

Well, but that's just rather wild guess, although the supressor grid in a electron tube does exactly the same thing: catching secondary emmision electrons that need to be 'burned' somewhere. Usually they are fed back directly to the kathode via a dead short.

« Last Edit: December 31, 2005, 11:18:33 PM by IcyBlue »

Offline Steven Dufresne

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Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #4 on: January 01, 2006, 01:44:12 AM »
Hi Icy,
Good find! The only problem I have with it is that I've examined the videos extensively and can find only two wires connecting to the diode at the top of the 3kW testatika. Any other wires must be very well hidden.
Actually, if it's a diode like that one described in the patent, then you need only *two* wires.
Sorry. You're right. I'm batting zero today.

I always doubted that it is a headed thermoionic rectifier, also after closely inspecting the photos and videos. What was suposed to be a glowing filament to me more looked like a image reduction artefact.
I always doubted this too but mainly because of the large amount of energy I expect would be required to produce the  heat.

This also jibes with Marinov's description of what he saw in the small machine's two big cans - a central wire spiral surrounded by one/two grid cylinders.
yes, but only if they are capacitive transformers. I am not so sure about this.
Here's an exact quote from Stefan Marinov with regards to the small machine which he had in his possession
for one week:
Quote

The capacitors have a cylindrical "grid", cylindrical plastic insulation and a copper spiral in the
center... THAT'S ALL! I saw in one of the small machines there are no magnets".


I've wondered about similiar things. In my case it is a way of turning HVDC (if that's what there is) into lower VDC. I found this accidentally. I had two cans as you see with testatikas. Each can was made up of two concentric cylindrical grids with a loose coil in the center. Since HVDC was across the outer grid and the coil, the coil was acting only as an electrode for a capacitor. The center grids of each can were connected to each other through measuring devices. I unexpectedly had ion conduction between one of the center grids and its corresponding outer grid which resulted in LVDC and small current between the two center grids as can be seen here:
 http://rimstar.org/sdenergy/testa/potsmk1.htm
 http://rimstar.org/sdenergy/testa/potstheory1.htm
This ion current could be made more widespread by removing the insulation between the grids.

-Steve

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #4 on: January 01, 2006, 01:44:12 AM »
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Offline IcyBlue

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Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #5 on: January 01, 2006, 12:01:18 PM »
About the function of the 'caps' I only can guess at the moment. Based on the highres images wich were posted here too you can at least see half of the innards. I thought I would see something shining through so I took a image processing program to see if I can work it out a little better and suceeded.
So far I don't see any insulation layer, but I can see the next inner grid, having a much wider mesh and being probably of brass, due to it's color. The outer layer might be aluminium or tinplate. This setup seems to work like a ion-accelerator, but as such, it is a DC component.

The only thing that does not fit in very well here is that you still have a too high impedance to directly drive a load. But in this configuration a load would actually cause a ion acceleration effect, thus causing more ions to flow the more current is drawn. But since this cannot be done in a symetrical setup, the construction of the other cap must be differnt inside.

Offline IcyBlue

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Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #6 on: January 01, 2006, 12:10:36 PM »
and actually, if you look closely at the image of the other cap, you see a different kind of electrode. No widespace mesh, but either a rather fine one or a solid plate !

So the conclusion this leads me to is that

* the current (the ions !) flows from right to left
* the right device utilizes a divergent current
* the left device utilizes a convergent current

Ions in air are usually positiv charged, and the positive side is denoted 'hot'. The common color scheme used is blue = (-), red = (+). I just checked this against the images and this is exactly what you can see on the 3KW model.

This all fits nicely together with Everts ether-theory - if the testatica is real and not just a fake, if Prof. Evert is right with his theory and I am in understanding his theory.
« Last Edit: January 01, 2006, 12:29:07 PM by IcyBlue »

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #6 on: January 01, 2006, 12:10:36 PM »
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Offline Steven Dufresne

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Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #7 on: January 01, 2006, 10:17:22 PM »
You wouldn't see an insulation layer if it was made of transparent material (e.g. acrylic).

I think the difference in what you see in the two caps (see your attached pictures methcap.png and methcap2.png) may be due to reflection onto the outermost aluminium (silver colored) grid. That's what I see by looking at the original file, testabig.jpg. Also, again using testabig.jpg, there also appears to be different shades of copper behing the grid holes. However I'm with you in that there should be assymetry. I achieved this by having the polarities be different for each 'cap' (i.e. center electrode is positive for one and negative for the other).

See attached image which I think describes what we are both thinking about. This image uses free electrons rather that ions but the idea is the same. The wiring is different than with the 3kW testatika in that with the 3kW testatika the outer grid cylinders appear to be connected together. I say 'appears' because it is possible that they are wired through the two tall grid cylinders in the back (often refered to as chokes).

-Steve

Offline IcyBlue

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Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #8 on: January 02, 2006, 11:59:34 AM »
I agree, this is what I thought too - except for one: since the system uses moving charges there must not be any solid inbetween the inner and outer electrode. Baumann too said: "It only works with grids, not solid planes".

The outer electrodes should be somehow connected together and provide the center potential. That there is a center potential you see on the machine with the 3-pole power outlet, while it has been ommited on all others. However, this potential must be kept below zero (or common ground), or the charges simply would take the shorter route over the load and the accelleration stops.
I think a good book on electron valve desing from the old days could give some more clues.

Since both of these devices are fed by RFAC and LVDC is drawn off them they must provide some rectifying mechanism inside to. I think I remind having read somewhere that the charges are 'sprayed on' somehow (but im not certain about this); so the inside configuration could consist of a combination of a faraday cup (the most inner grid) with a field emitter cathode inside. But I have no idea whats in the other one.

Last but not least, the whole thing seems to be either a vacuum device or one operating at low pressure. If you look carefully at the pictures you can see a slight gleam at a small distance around the outer grid - which is either a glass tube or perspex. This would not be necessary if it would operate at athmosphere pressure. If you remind what I have said about the supressor grid and it's position some posts above, this all makes up a rather round theory. The outer grid in the larger machines or the complete housing of the device serves one purpose: to hold back the splitters if the device happens to implode due to the underpressure it has.

PS: the attachement is a datasheet of a device that converts a ion beam into current bu using a faraday cup. Something similar might be in the center of the ML-converter device.
« Last Edit: January 02, 2006, 04:56:43 PM by IcyBlue »

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #8 on: January 02, 2006, 11:59:34 AM »
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Offline Steven Dufresne

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Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #9 on: January 02, 2006, 09:00:09 PM »
I agree they are likely in vacuum. That's what I was eluding to in my first post when I said they are all enclosed in a glass/clear plastic container.

There are basically two approaches: electron multiplication in a vacuum by collision against aluminum grids (like Farnsworth's patent), electron multiplication by ion and electron collision. The second one may not need grids at all so I agree with you that it is more likely in vacuum.

I think our ideas are fairly close, but there is still the problem of the second 'cap'. I think both caps are needed in order to produce low voltage DC for a load. I'm definately not happy the the cap on the left in the diagram in my previous post above. The electron multiplication going to the outer grid will decrease the positiveness of the HVDC+ coming from the power supply. You also mention that the outer cylinders should be connected but I don't see how that can be and still have the needed assymetry.

Just to be clear on what I'm thinking... In the 'cap' on the right in my diagram the outer cylinder is negative and the inner loose wire coil is positive. Together they produce the e-field gradient across all the other cylinders, going from negative to positive. With no load, as long as the inner coil is more positive than any of the grids, the electrons will end up at the coil. With a load, some of the electrons will be taken from the pickup cylinder and sent to the load. The percentage of electrons going to the load would depend, I think, on the resistance of the load. Yuck.

Since we are producing free electrons at each of the grids, there may be a danger of an inner grid becoming more negative than an outer grid and causing the whole thing to reverse or fail. There may be a danger of the electrons impacting an inner grid so strongly that some electrons will bounce back to an outer grid. (this is all guesswork) That is where a suppressor grid would be used but I don't see how. Hopefully experiment will show that this isn't an issue.

I'm hoping to lead up to an experiment where multiple runs are done, each with a different number of floating grids, measuring the current across a load. But I don't think we have necessary circuit figured out yet.

-Steve

Offline IcyBlue

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Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #10 on: January 04, 2006, 08:54:36 AM »
Hi,

There are some more informations we can get from the images by crosscorrelating it with real plasma devices:

I once saw a electron valve dying wich sucked up just a little air. It had a nice faint violett glow but was still working. Very soon a silvergrey coating formed on the inside of the tube at the positions where the anode plate had some holes. This is called sputtering. Fast ions are bombarding the target and hammering out atoms due to the impulse they are having which in turn then condense at the next best surface. Similar is done with ion abrasing in SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy).

If there would be fast ions involved that are flying outwards, then we *definitely* had such a coating (silvergrey spots on the glass where the grid has the holes). Since we don't have one, the charges in the right device must be flowing inwards. Based on the color of the wires it should be negative charges. In the left device where the charges must flow outwards - due to the mirror symtrical design - we have a solid cylinder, thus sputtering on the glass can not occur. So it seems likely that the left device is something like a ordinaray electron valve design - having the cathode (faraday cap) in the middle and a solid anode cylinder on the outside. The right device is a 'upside down' constructed electron valve with the anode cylinder in the center and a field emitter grid on the outside - in exact the same position where the anode of the other device is.

But the fact that we on neither of the devices can see some sputtered coating could as well be due to some very simple reasons:
* The machines never run longer than a few seconds
* no moving charges are involved at all in them, i.e. they are nothing but a fake.

I don't think the swiss have access to highvacuum pumps or the devices as they are constructed could maintain a such for long - so there *must* be some ions present which *would* cause sputtering under any circumstance.

This one is starting to look like einsteins riddle - elliminate all posibilities and the impossible solution remains; but there are good chanced that it is a imaginary one ;)

Quote
I'm hoping to lead up to an experiment where multiple runs are done, each with a different number of floating grids, measuring the current across a load. But I don't think we have necessary circuit figured out yet.
not quite, but we are close to. We certainly need to build a electron valve (or at least something that can be evacuated for investigation) since almost all of the commercially available ones have the supressor grid shorted to the cathode, but we want our load exactly inbetween this short.

BTW: This kind off asymetry or mirror symetric design seems to be present in all of the 'caps' and they all seem to be of the same type ! I processed the image of the 300W model and could work out another detail: The left cap seems to use either copper spirals/rings/mesh inside while the right one has a probably solid cylinder of brass inside. It seems the small devices are daisy chained (via discharge gaps) to the big ones.
« Last Edit: January 04, 2006, 11:56:26 AM by IcyBlue »

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Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #10 on: January 04, 2006, 08:54:36 AM »
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Offline Bruce A. Perreault

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Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #11 on: January 04, 2006, 08:12:03 PM »
Hello IcyBlue,

What is shown is not the diode in the Testatika. This is a common
misinterpretation due to the missyncronization on the audio portion
from the video portion in the Testatika movie. I have a very clear
picture and what is actually shown is a choke coil. The "rectifying diode"
is below this choke.

              -Bruce P.

             

Offline IcyBlue

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Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #12 on: January 04, 2006, 09:05:45 PM »
Hello Bruce,

Quote
What is shown is not the diode in the Testatika. This is a common misinterpretation
However do you call this, this does not really matter (for the moment) - as long as we all know about which part we are talking. This is why I put the word diode into quotations. Im just trying to correlate what I see to what I read in some patents and know so far. I have a slight clue now how the devices look inside, but not yet enough information to get this all together. Sofar I can only say that the "caps" probably are no caps at all - not in the first place. The capacitance is only a side effect.

If you have some highres pictures (better than those already posted here) this would be of great help.

- Icy.

Offline Steven Dufresne

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Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #13 on: January 05, 2006, 11:01:52 PM »
I once saw a electron valve dying wich sucked up just a little air. It had a nice faint violett glow but was still working. Very soon a silvergrey coating formed on the inside of the tube at the positions where the anode plate had some holes. This is called sputtering. Fast ions are...

But the fact that we on neither of the devices can see some sputtered coating could as well be due to some very simple reasons:
* The machines never run longer than a few seconds
* no moving charges are involved at all in them, i.e. they are nothing but a fake.
You are assuming a vacuum tube with air in it, and hence ions are being used. If the vacuum is being maintained then, gathering from what you say, you wouldn't see sputtering

I don't think the swiss have access to highvacuum pumps or the devices as they are constructed could maintain a such for long - so there *must* be some ions present which *would* cause sputtering under any circumstance.
Check out the following link. It's the first thing I found in a quick google search for "homemade vacuum tubes" so there's probably a lot more. I indicates not such a high vacuum and fancy equipment is needed for the electron approach.
http://home.earthlink.net/~lenyr/hm-triode.htm
http://home.earthlink.net/~lenyr/vt-vac.htm

Also, I think you suggested looking for a good book for homemade vacuum tubes. "Instruments of Amplification" by Pete Friedrichs has been recommended to me by a friend. I glanced at his copy briefly and it looked good. You can get it here:
http://www.lindsaybks.com/bks7/finstr/index.html

-Steve

Offline Steven Dufresne

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Re: The "Diode"
« Reply #14 on: January 05, 2006, 11:06:17 PM »
What is shown is not the diode in the Testatika. This is a common
misinterpretation due to the missyncronization on the audio portion
from the video portion in the Testatika movie. I have a very clear
picture and what is actually shown is a choke coil. The "rectifying diode"
is below this choke.

              -Bruce P.           
Hi Bruce,
Not that we can be certain either way but I looked at both the English version of the video and the German version today and both versions start talking about the diode just as they are zooming in on the part that's at the top of the machine.
-Steve

 

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