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Author Topic: Phase Relationships and Harmonics  (Read 7059 times)

Offline Jdo300

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Phase Relationships and Harmonics
« on: July 27, 2007, 09:13:28 AM »
Hello All,

I have a lot of info to share with you here so before I get into the details, let me share with you the thought process that let me to my experiment and research.

For the longest time, I have been confused about the relationship and interaction of the input frequencies in the TPU. We know from Steven Mark?s letters that the ?kick? phenomena was what initially got him interested in the subject, as well as two out of phase transformers. In later letters, he then talks about harmonics (or harmonic components to be more precise, more on this later) as an integral part of his device. He said in yet another letter that the devices could put out great amounts of power once they reached harmonic perfection. But what does this all mean?

How do sharp kicks, slightly out of phase transformers, and harmonics all tie together? Oh, but there is one more thing to throw into the mix?. The rotating ?field? with inertia. How is this all working together in the TPU to produce power?

The question that I have sought to answer is Why all this works to produce power.

So let?s start at the beginning with the ?kick.?

We pretty much know from Steven, Tesla, Bob, Mark, and many others that sharp, quick impulses do interesting ?stuff?. But how does this apply in the case of a TPU specifically? To answer this question, I must turn to the experiment I did last week.

Part of my investigation into the fundamental concept of the TPU involved understanding the characteristics and behavior of high speed rotating magnetic field. We know from Steven and Bob that these things produce this field, so my goal was to determine how to make one with the least amount of energy input.

So I started with my latest TPU wrapped on the PVC cuplink (you can see a picture of it here: http://www.overunity.com/index.php/topic,1872.msg31804.html#msg31804).. It turned out to be a great candidate for this test because each coil was wound with exactly 200 feet of 30 gauge magnet wire (basically, the whole spool from RadioShack) and had an inductance of exactly 3 mH! This very high inductance value (for an air-cored coil) allowed me to bring the natural resonant frequency of the coil down into the kHz range without the need of adding a capacitor to the coil to artificially lower it.

My goal for this test was simple. First I modified one channel of my old control board (which used an external function generator to drive some mic4427 MOSFET drivers for IRF840 MOSFETS), and I added a few extra components to decrease the pulse width of the input going to the MOSFET driver chips down to about 400 ns (which was about the limit that the driver chips could handle).

Next, I connected my circuit as shown in the following diagram:

(http://www.overunity.com/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=2873.0;attach=11580)
 
As you can see, the significant feature of this circuit is the ungrounded transformer secondary and control coil! This is part of what I believe is the secret?

I found in some earlier experiments I did that you can actually transfer power from the primary of a transformer to the secondary of a transformer without the circuit on the primary being closed-looped. We are speaking strictly electrostatic induction here (or longitudinal induction if you will).

So I tried the same method here. When I put the short pulses into the primary, I found that the circuit operated very efficiently and drew no more than 30mA throughout the entire frequency range from 1 Hz up to about 800 kHz (where the driver chips started to give out from capacitance on the lines).

But the most remarkable thing I found was that I could pulse this one-wire control coil into sine wave resonance simply from these pulses of potential that came from the open circuited primary! But wait there?s more. When I attached the coil to the transformer, the input current did not change at all! (or if it did, the change was negligible considering the current draw of ~10-30 mA).

When I found the resonant frequency of my control coil, the control circuit was drawing only 20 mA at a frequency of about 480 kHz. The 50V spikes that entered the coil at this point turned into a +200V pk/pk sine wave in the coil once it reached the ?sweet spot.? And if I tuned higher, I could also hit other harmonics of this fundamental frequency.

Next, I scoped across the collector coil of this device (which was about six turns of 18 gauge speaker wire, and I was able to see sinusoidal oscillations so I connected a bridge rectifier and a 330 Ohm resistor across the DC side to take some output measurements. The RMS votage across the resistor came out to be 2.5V for a total output of 7.5 mW. Now this may not seem like much but the fact is that I managed to produce this minuscule output from a resonant sine wave that was generated from free potential!

So the next step now is to repeat the same process for the other two control coils to produce a three-phase rotating field!

So from this first experiment, I learned that by using sharp ?kick? potentials, it is possible to pulse a coil into resonance using little to no extra power from the driving circuit. As we all know, it is simply a function of the rising and falling edges of the impulse that induces the effect. The higher the better!


This answered my question about how the many little kicks combine into one big kick (resonance), but what about the out of phase transformers and the harmonics?? Now we can make a nice smooth rotating field virtually for free, but how does this other stuff fit in?

For the answer to this, I make reference to the following two articles from www.allaboutcircuits.com. The first article is called ?Harmonics in Polyphase Systems.? The second article is titled ?Harmonic phase sequences.? Here are the links to both below:

http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_2/chpt_10/7.html
http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_2/chpt_10/8.html

Please read these first before seeing the rest of this post as I will make references to specific information there.

Here are some highlights from the first article that I want to turn your attention to.

Here is the reference diagram from the article for the paragraph below:

(http://sub.allaboutcircuits.com/images/02328.png)

?What should be surprising here is the analysis for the neutral conductor's current, as determined by the voltage drop across the Rneutral resistor between SPICE nodes 0 and 7. (Figure above) In a balanced 3-phase Y load, we would expect the neutral current to be zero. Each phase current -- which by itself would go through the neutral wire back to the supplying phase on the source Y -- should cancel each other in regard to the neutral conductor because they're all the same magnitude and all shifted 120o apart. In a system with no harmonic currents, this is what happens, leaving zero current through the neutral conductor. However, we cannot say the same for harmonic currents in the same system.

Note that the fundamental frequency (60 Hz, or the 1st harmonic) current is virtually absent from the neutral conductor. Our Fourier analysis shows only 0.4337 ?A of 1st harmonic when reading voltage across Rneutral. The same may be said about the 5th and 7th harmonics, both of those currents having negligible magnitude. In contrast, the 3rd and 9th harmonics are strongly represented within the neutral conductor, with 149.3 mA (1.493E-01 volts across 1 Ω) each! This is very nearly 150 mA, or three times the current sources' values, individually. With three sources per harmonic frequency in the load, it appears our 3rd and 9th harmonic currents in each phase are adding to form the neutral current.?

AND?.

?Due to their abundance and significance in three-phase power systems, the 3rd harmonic and its multiples have their own special name: triplen harmonics. All triplen harmonics add with each other in the neutral conductor of a 4-wire Y-connected load. In power systems containing substantial nonlinear loading, the triplen harmonic currents may be of great enough magnitude to cause neutral conductors to overheat. This is very problematic, as other safety concerns prohibit neutral conductors from having overcurrent protection, and thus there is no provision for automatic interruption of these high currents.?
 
OK, can anyone see where I am going with this!? I believe that it is the Triplen Harmonics that show up in the three-phase neutral lines that are the source of the anomalous energy output! Even the author admits that these currents are ?strange? and explains that people try their best to kill them! But the fact is that these harmonics are producing excess power and lots of it apparently if it is enough to overheat and burn out the otherwise neutral line of the system!

Now for this next part, envision the three-phase Y connection as the three control coils and see what they say happens if we cut the ground line?

Here?s another diagram again for reference:

(http://sub.allaboutcircuits.com/images/02330.png)

?Strange things are happening, indeed. First, we see that the triplen harmonic currents (3rd and 9th) all but disappear in the lines connecting load to source. The 5th and 7th harmonic currents are present at their normal levels (approximately 50 mA), but the 3rd and 9th harmonic currents are of negligible magnitude. Second, we see that there is substantial harmonic voltage between the two ?Y? center-points, between which the neutral conductor used to connect. According to SPICE, there is 50 volts of both 3rd and 9th harmonic frequency between these two points, which is definitely not normal in a linear (no harmonics), balanced Y system. Finally, the voltage as measured across one of the load's phases (between nodes 8 and 7 in the SPICE analysis) likewise shows strong triplen harmonic voltages of 50 volts each.?

So we can see that leaving the three control coils floating between each other increases the triplen harmonics that appear even more! What this all adds up to is a large potential difference building up in the TPU which will create a stronger and stronger field the closer you get to the harmonic resonant frequencies of the system.

Now, this is all good, but guess what? The harmonics also do something else in addition to strengthen the field. They add rotation to the field!

Check out this quote from the second link I posted:

 If we extend the mathematical table to include higher odd-numbered harmonics, we will notice an interesting pattern develop with regard to the rotation or sequence of the harmonic frequencies:

(http://sub.allaboutcircuits.com/images/12142.png)

Harmonics such as the 7th, which ?rotate? with the same sequence as the fundamental, are called positive sequence. Harmonics such as the 5th, which ?rotate? in the opposite sequence as the fundamental, are called negative sequence. Triplen harmonics (3rd and 9th shown in this table) which don't ?rotate? at all because they're in phase with each other, are called zero sequence.

This pattern of positive-zero-negative-positive continues indefinitely for all odd-numbered harmonics, lending itself to expression in a table like this:

(http://sub.allaboutcircuits.com/images/12143.png)

The first point I want to make here is that we are literally creating fields that will rotate with and against each other at harmonic speeds of the original! Remember this quote?

Rotation of field. . . How many people think about that? If you could have a field that you could think of as a big ball, and you could rotate it in two directions, what would the ramifications be?

Steven?s ?big ball? analogy could mean that two of the three rotating magnetic fields are rotating against each other.

However, there is still one unanswered question left to tackle. If the TPU will make harmonics simply by applying the pulses in a three-phase fashion, then why do we need to input harmonics into the system? Simple. If you remember the article, it states that the 3rd and 9th harmonics (which are stationary) are the strongest, while the 5th and 7th harmonics (which rotate) are the weaker ones that show up naturally. So? If we wan to intentionally make these weaker harmonics show up, we simply apply pulses at those two frequencies into the coil. This will strengthen the harmonic rotating fields (if that is what we want to do), But then again, if we simply want to strengthen the stationary harmonics, we can input the 3rd and 9th harmonic frequencies. But either way, this definitely offers a lot of freedom for experimentation.

Well, that?s all I have for now. I do have more ideas stewing in my mind but I must do more experiments to prove what I have mentioned so far before continuing. Next week will be the end of the summer semester (and finals) for me so once I make it over that hurtle, I?ll be able to jump full time into the TPU project. Please give me your thoughts/ criticisms on this information. I?d be very happy to hear the different perspectives on this.

God Bless,
Jason O
« Last Edit: July 27, 2007, 09:34:20 AM by Jdo300 »

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Offline MarkSnoswell

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Re: Phase Relationships and Harmonics
« Reply #1 on: July 27, 2007, 10:11:58 AM »
Jason -- very good. Experiment and research.

With the right configuration and light coupling you can stimulate a 3 phase resonance with a single ended input. I can send you a spice model if you like... I made it to model my B3 resonant coils. What I didn't do was look a the higher harmonics in the spice model -- I'll go and do that now.

One thing I note with my coils is the very high Q for 3 phase resonance compared the the Q of the same coils in single phase resonance. I presume this is due to the angular momentum of the 3 phase rotating field... by extrapolation I anticipate an even higher Q in the field was spinning rather than rotating. (I use the term spinning to denote a spinor (3 axis 3D rotation) as compared to single axis 2 dimentional rotation) When I read SM comments about spinning a big ball in two directions at once I interpreted it as hinting at spin rather than rotation.

You are doing great work and good thinking -- keep it up. The complication with the real world OU devices is the inclusion of 3 coils ofset along the Z (3 phase rotation in XY plane) axis. Driving 2nd and 4 th harmonics in the Z axis is what can elevate a rotating field to a spining field. I have a good friend who is a power transmission expert -- you've inspired me to contact him and brush up on the harmonic artifacts in 3 phase power transmission systems.

cheers

Mark.

Offline Jdo300

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Re: Phase Relationships and Harmonics
« Reply #2 on: July 27, 2007, 11:43:05 AM »
Hi Mark,

Thank you for the information! Yes it would be great if you could send me the spice model. I'm still searching for the simplest way to stimulate the effect without overcomplicated circuitry... I'm actually
looking into the good ol' fashion blocking oscillator circuits, which were made of several simple analog components. However, despite their incredible simplicity, they had good enough frequency stability to be used in the CRTs for old tube-type TV sets. The beauty of these circuits is that they have the natural disposition to use very little input power and output very thin, high voltage, pulses in a very wide range of frequencies depending on the selected components.

EM and I have been doing some experiments along these lines because we suspect that the early TPUs used these circuits.

Imagine taking the same circuit diagram I made earlier and replacing everything on the left side of the transformer with this:

(http://www.overunity.com/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=2873.0;attach=11586)

And yet this simple little circuit does the exact same thing to the control coil as my first, more complex one did. But this one uses much less power, and would be easy to work into the innards of a small TPU coil. In this case, the pulse width and high voltage output are taken care of for you, and phasing is a simple matter of controlling the triggering. This is an area I am looking into now. But if you say it is possible to make the three phases with a single input, that would make things even easier :).

"no mass circuitry involved in any of this stuff, it's just the knowledge of the coils and how they interact"

I prefer Occam's Razor myself ;).

God Bless,
Jason O

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: Phase Relationships and Harmonics
« Reply #2 on: July 27, 2007, 11:43:05 AM »
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Offline Jdo300

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Re: Phase Relationships and Harmonics
« Reply #3 on: August 11, 2007, 11:56:47 PM »
Hello All,

This week I had some time to do a simulation of the magnetic fields produced by the three frequencies interacting in the primaries. I used the software program called FEMM (Finite Element Method Magnetics) which is a magnetism's field simulator for electromagnetic and electrostatic fields. I programmed a script file that would modify the currents in the three primaries and take screen shots of the resulting solutions. Then I processed the frames into an animated gif image.

I did three simulations. One is of the simple three-phase rotating field (no harmonics). The second one is a simulation of the rotational mode which Bob gave us in the timing diagram. The third simulation is the same as the second only pictured at the resonant frequency of the coils so you can see the standing waves.

Please keep in mind that this is meant purely as a ballpark visual of what *could* be going on. This program does not model the electromagnetic fields that would be propagating into space from the coils so it is in no way an accurate representation of the actual fields. I just did this to see roughly what the interaction is like.

One more thing I should mention. The core in the simulation is air and not powered iron. If I used the powered iron core, then most of the field lines didn't show up.

God Bless,
Jason O

Offline MarkSnoswell

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Re: Phase Relationships and Harmonics
« Reply #4 on: August 12, 2007, 04:54:56 PM »
Jason -- very cool, I will have to get you to do my FEMM analysis in future ;)

But -- this        is the field generated from clasical current driven coils, not longitudinal wave driven. It's very cool to see but probably just showing us the field patern that we dont want to waste energy generating.

cheers

Mark
(in Bell Canyon, LA today)

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: Phase Relationships and Harmonics
« Reply #4 on: August 12, 2007, 04:54:56 PM »
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Offline EMdevices

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Re: Phase Relationships and Harmonics
« Reply #5 on: August 19, 2007, 01:42:45 AM »
Good work Jason!! 

I know it takes some effort to put those simulations together.  I wouldn't worry about the radiated fields unless you used a relatively high frequency.

Guys, you know what I want to see,  I want to see a whole bunch of those magnetic poles actually ROTATING  :)

In other words, I want to see the intense concentrated magnetic energy going round and round the ring, not defusing and reappearing.

Then as these strong magnetic concentrations pass a sector coil, it will induce a lot of voltage and current will flow in a load!!!

How can we do that?

EM

P.S.  Look in the main TPU thread, I included a simulation of a 2-phase system that creates a magnetic field.  (in Master of Magnetics thread)
http://www.overunity.com/index.php/topic,712.msg45234.html#msg45234
« Last Edit: August 20, 2007, 07:28:17 PM by EMdevices »

 

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