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Author Topic: All Permanent Magnet failed Prototype  (Read 544 times)

Offline Lunkster

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All Permanent Magnet failed Prototype
« on: August 27, 2020, 05:43:48 PM »
I have several magnetic and electromagnetic motor designs.  I decided to pick the least likely design to function using the new Three Layer New Technology using Permanent Magnet switching instead of using the electromagnets for switch because I figure that people can not tell me that I am performing the measurements wrong if I have a running All Permanent Magnet Motor.  So I spent a lot of time and money to build a workshop and prototype motor.  I do have to say that I learned a lot going through the process.  Because of the lessons learned, I came up with the Stator Reconfiguration Motor design I have posted which uses electromagnets for the switching.  Electromagnets do not require additional mechanical movement in order to perform the switching.
All Permanent Magnet Prototype Failure
      Traveling Hybrid Flux Wave Motor
This motor name comes from the fact that the motor design is a re-configuring of the magnets on the stator assembly on the fly in order to create a moving flux wave in it continually in order to keep the rotor assembly moving continuously.
Without a working prototype, I cannot claim over unity or free energy for my new technologies, that is why I say maybe it has a COP>1.  I Have built test stations where I could test modules of the motor but what is needed is a fully operational motor for people to see.   I am very excited to be able to have built a full size proof-of-concept prototype motor.  I have chosen to build a motor design that would have no question of a COP>1 when I was done building it.  As a picture is worth a thousand words, a working prototype is worth thousands of words.
Before I start to explain the motor I want to explain what this motor is similar to.  Picture a man riding a train.  The train is on a slope so that the gravity allows the train to move down the tracks.  Now there is a limited amount of tracks in front of the train.  As the train moves down the tracks, the man picks up a section of track the train had just moved on and moves it to the front of the train so that it can move farther down the tracks.  If there was no bottom of the hill this could go on forever because you never reach the bottom of the hill.  What my motor design does is that the stator is constantly being reconfigured as the rotor is moved across it.  The magnetism is like the slope on gravity, magnetism will move other magnets to certain positions to make an easier route of the flux to travel in the magnets.  My design reconfigures the magnets on the fly to keep the rotor and stator magnets moving toward the sweet spot where the south pole of the rotor wants to meet the north pole of the stator magnet.  What my new technology does, is to create a forward torque between the rotor and stator through the full rotation of the motor travel.  With the gravity driven train, it reaches the bottom of the hill, but with my train, since the magnetic poles keep moving because of the constant reconfiguring of the stator assembly, the rotor will never get to the pole it is trying to reach.  The rotation of the rotor never ends because of the constant torque between the stator an rotor assemblies caused by the continuous reconfiguration of the stator assembly.  The the book I wrote goes into a lot of detail of how this works.  I will only summarize what is happening with the technology here.  This paper gets more into the details of the proto-type motor and hardware I designed and am building, and now have built.  My greatest performing motors I have designed will not be used in this proto-type motor because those designs use electromagnets in the stator assembly in order to operate them.  Those designs do not need moving parts for the switching functions that needs to go on in the stator assembly for the reconfiguration of it.  But with electric motors, laboratory testing are required in order to evaluate the efficiencies of them.  This would be too costly for me to do.  With an all permanent magnet design without using electricity would be a visual test of its operation.  There would be no doubt of its COP>1. 
Now every permanent magnet and electromagnet-magnet motor in the world have one or more flux waves in them.  This is because it is the changing flux fields that create movement in them.  With that being said most of those designs will have stationary PM and or EM components on both the stator and the rotor assemblies.  The electro-magnets will have different currents and directions of currents flow through them in order to generate the changing flux to generate the torque to move the rotor inside of the stator or/and rotor assembly.  These methods I will call two layer systems.  What I have been working with for the last few years are three layer motor designs.  What is different about three layer designs is that the configuration of the stator changes while the all permanent magnet rotor is rotating inside of the stator.  This can be done either mechanically or electrically.  If I do it electrically, usually I will use an air core for the electro-magnets or coils I am using in the motor.  The reason I have been using an air core is because I want the component to disappear from the functional sight of the permanent magnets in the motor at certain times of the operation of the motor.  It is because of the electromagnets appearing and disappearing functionally in the motor, I am able to change the functional make-up of the stator or rotor assembly without moving hardware during the operation of the motor assembly. When the electromagnet comes to life, it becomes a part of a hybrid magnet with the two adjacent permanent magnets next to it.  This new hybrid magnet now has a different function with the permanent magnets on the rotor assembly.  It is the cycling between the magnet to hybrid magnet arrangements that creates a condition where the rotor permanent magnets will always have a forward torque from the stator assembly to the rotor assembly.  In the prototype designs I have used physical moving parts in order to reduce the number of electromagnets in the motor.  I feel that the fewer electro-magnets I use then the less power will be needed to operate the motor.  Now mechanical movement creates more losses that need to be taken into account as to the final performance of the motor.  Once the technology is proven with mechanical movement, then the electrical motor designs will be explored with more enthusiasm and expectation of positive results in those motor designs. 

 With my current designs, I keep the rotor magnet within the body of the stator permanent magnet so that I will always have forward torque on the rotor.  The rotor magnets outside the body of the stator magnet create a torque in the opposite direction.  When you start working with torque in the opposite direction, then conventional designs will install an electromagnet in the place of the permanent magnet.  With most of these designs, the electromagnets have power to them all the time.  The current flow direction is changed in order to change the polarity of the electromagnet, but electrical energy usage means a reduced performance when compared to an all permanent magnet motor.  But can an all permanent magnet motor be designed and built is the big question.
Now in one of the following drawing has the conventional two layer motor technology on the left side of the drawing.  On the right side of the drawing, the new three layer technology is demonstrated.  Now the three layer technology uses two layer technology 50% of the time and the “Three Layer Technology” 50% of the time.  So the length of the two layer occurs for the length of one stationary magnet movement.  At the end of the travel the stator is reconfigured to the three layer configuration.  The stationary magnet in the first rotor movement travel becomes part of the reconfigured functional magnet.  When this reconfiguration occurs the rotor magnet is in the position of being 1/3 ways through the functional magnet.  The rotor will travel for another 1/3 way through the functional magnet before the stator is reconfigured back into  the two layer format.  Now the magnet that was on the right side of the functional magnet is now used to move the rotor assembly.

 Now if you use enough of these configurations and bring them around into the first one again, you will create rotary movement that will continue to rotate for as long as the magnets in the switching position are operating correctly. 
 The three layer technology shown here has one rotor permanent magnet for every four stator magnet positions.  There are many additional options in the three layer technology that will be discussed later.  For now we are looking at the basic operation of the technology for rotary movement in a motor design.  Also the drawings show the rotor on the inside of the stator assembly.  This is not the best way to use the three layer rotary technology in motors, but it is easier for demonstrating the functionality of the three layer technology.  In the first movement of travel, no active switching magnets are needed to create this movement.  This is movement from the interaction from between the rotor and stator magnets alone.

Now what I have achieved by using the three layer motor designs is to reconfigure the stator of the motor on the fly so that the rotor can have continual forward torque in the motor.  When working with a conventional “all permanent magnet” designs and try to get continual movement in the motor,  there is that hump of “for every attraction there is a repulsion”  between the two magnets that needs to be resolved.  For many of those motor designs, it is not resolved.  This is why in a lot of conventional electric motors there is a permanent magnet working with an electromagnet to control those negative torque points in the motor performance. 
With the three layer technology, let’s say we are using two permanent magnets again, one in the stator and one in the rotor.  Now let’s assume that attraction is being used to create forward torque in my design.  Now I would use the attraction of the two magnet to rotate the rotor half ways through the rotational travel from only the force existing between these two magnets, the magnets would now resist the movement of the rotor because of the repulsion between those two magnets.  A conventional motor would have replaced one of the permanent magnets and used an electromagnet in its place in order to provide a current in the opposite direction in order to move the rotor the rest of the rotors rotation.  What you have to do is have electrical energy in the electromagnet through the full rotation of the motor now.  So this means that for magnetic motors, you have torque from 50% permanent magnets and 50% electromagnets.  What the three layer technology does is to reconfigure the stator into a functional magnet that creates forward torque from the stator assembly hybrid functional magnet and the rotor permanent magnet.  This is the place where the normal repulsion occurs in the two layer design.  So 50% of the rotation is done in the two layer format and the other 50% of rotation is done with the three layer format.  So when using electromagnets for your switches you end up having torque from thee permanent magnets and one hybrid functional magnet for the full rotation of the motor.  The functional operation is through 50% of the rotation.  When using the electromagnets in the design, you are operating at less power than other motors.  When using permanent magnets for the switching, then no electrical power is required.  But permanent magnet switching has to be proved first because the losses of switching along with interaction between rotor and stator magnets may be to great in order to achieve over unity status.
When using electrical energy, enough flux needs to be generated to create the hybrid magnet. 
Now as the rotor moves inside of the stator assembly using this alternating of hybrid to conventional configurations, then the device will have flux waves that are created and will move around in the rotor tract during the operation of the motor design.  Now there will be one flux wave for four segments of rotor travel.  If the motor has 32 segment to create one full rotation of the rotor, then there will be eight traveling waves in the motor.
Now for mechanical movement to make up the hybrid configurations, mechanical energy is needed in order for this to occur.  The configurations need to be in sync with the rotor’s rotation at the same time.  Now there are endless ways to mechanically configure the hybrid and disassembly it.  What I have decided to use in my motor design is a switching wheel with eight segments of configuration on it. 
The switching wheels are not intended to produce forward torque for the motor.  It’s function is to reconfigure the stator assembly in order to produce a motor that always has forward torque on the rotor during the motors operation.   The switching wheel works with a pair of switching positions along the stator assembly.  The drawing shows the switching position marked 6 on the left side of the wheel and marked 2 on the right side of the switching wheel.   I call one segment of travel as the length of one magnet on the stator assembly.  The switching rotor is called out in segments of travel as well.  There are four segment configurations on the switching wheel that are repeated again to create the eight segments on the switching wheel.  Now what I have decided to use for my switching wheel is magnets for the switches.  Every other segment of travel will have a blank spot on the switching wheel.  This is because at every other segment of rotor travel, I want as little or no interaction of the magnets on the switching wheel with the interaction between the rotor and stator assembly.  Now the switches will not only create the hybrid magnet when needed for the rotor travel but it will also place a magnet of the opposite polarity on the other end of the hybrid magnet in order to strengthen the interaction of the hybrid with the rotor magnet.  The way it is strengthened is that it helps to prevent the stator magnets into becoming one large ring magnet because of the stator permanent magnets close proximity with each other.   By pairing two switching magnets going into switch positions having opposite magnetic poles to each other is a big advantage in reducing unwanted torque and friction on the switching wheel.  As one switching magnet is being placed into the switching position it will have attraction to move into place.  At the same time the other switching magnet will resist being put into place.  The net result for the most part will be a cancelation on the switching wheel.  Then when the first magnet is being removed from its switching position, it will resist that movement.  While this is happening the other switching wheel magnet is being pushed away from the switching position.  The forces between the two switching magnets again for the most part cancel each other out.  Now the reason I said mostly cancel each other out is because if you perform a vector analysis of these movements, there will be some overall resistance to performing this function along with friction in the bearings, wind resistance of the spinning switching wheel and other misc. performance reductions that become a factor.  Now in the final motor assembly, the rotor magnet will also contribute some additional reduction to the performance of the switching wheel.
A series of the switching wheels can be added together to create a track for linear movement.  What I do is to bend my switching assembly for the rotor to move in an arc.  I put 8 of these assemblies together so that the eighth section connects to the first switching network again.  I end up with a high torque rotational motor design.  This works good for the traveling flux wave to have a continuous path to travel.
Now as the rotor moves along the tract of the stator there is always torque between the stator and the rotor assemblies supporting the rotation of the rotor.  Now the rotor is connected through a gearing system to each of the switching wheels.  Since the stator has 32 segments in one full rotation of the rotor and the switching wheel has eight segment of function on it, the switching wheels will rotate four times around for each rotation of the rotor.  So the four to one gearing ratio between the rotor and switching wheels will create a one to one segment movement between the stator and rotor assemblies.  The segment positions between the rotor and switching wheels are critical.  So that is one reason there can be no slippage of the main shaft to the rotor disk, main shaft gear to main shaft, switching wheel to switching shaft and the switch wheel gear to switching wheel shaft.  Since there will be torque on these components, then extra design thought needs to go into them.  Now the main 6” gear has 192 teeth in it.  The next 3” gear has 96 teeth in it.  The 1 ½” gears have 48 teeth in them.  This means that gong from the 6” wheel to the 1 ½” gear will have a ratio of four to one.  The more teeth the better the synchronization will be because there will be less gear slop in the motor.   I used 17 gears instead of 9 gears in order to save on cost for this prototype build.  It just so happens that the extra layer of gears causes the rotation of the rotor and switching assemblies to be in the same direction.  Functionally, this should not make any difference.
Since a picture tells a thousand words I am adding pictures of the prototype here to show how the rotor and stator can work together for this new technology.  None of the drawings have all the detailed parts in it to build the motor but it has enough information for people to easily put one together.  I have used a lot of adhesive in building the prototype motor.

Now the design of the on-board generator could be evaluated with the duel pendulum approach in order to reduce the resistance the generator coils would have in the motor.  The toroid or partial toroid coils moving through a magnetic field to pulse the rotor electromagnets at the correct timing is the first thing I will be testing.   I have the design idea of using two air coils that function like a toroid.  When the coil pair moves through a magnetic field it produces a current pulse for the electromagnets.  Of course the final design needs to alternate a positive current in one segment with a negative current in the next segment and repeat that sequence through the remaining rotor rotation.  The following drawing shows my attempt build a functional toroid generator for the motor.
Again, the dual pendulum will be used to optimize the best on-board generator for me to power the electromagnets of this motor.  The final prototype will have both an on-board generator and connections for external power supplies to operate the electromagnets.  The first prototype will be kind of a test platform that can be modified as needed for optional designs with it.  The rotor is built with two layers to adjust the height of the rotor magnets.  All of these things will help to optimize the design for the next level of proto-type that would require a machine shop to build it.
Now even if the all permanent magnet version operates the motor, I want to add the electromagnets to increase the power of the motor.  With the way and amount of power is injected into the electromagnet, the motor can have a wide operating range of operation from a stopped position to a fast rotation.  The rotation cannot be two fast because the switching wheels would fall apart at higher speeds.  Again the proof of concept prototype is being built to prove the “Three Layer Technology” that can be used in several electromechanical devices.  The options are so vast that it would be hard to capture most of them in any book or paper written about them.

The graph is more technical because it summarizes the torques and resistance to the movements of the switching assemblies as they apply to the final overall performance of the motor assembly.  Now the switching wheel does not have the function of creating forward torque of the motor assembly.  That is performed between the rotor and stator assemblies.  The function of the switching wheels is to produce the function of re-configuration with minimal resistance to the performance of the motor assembly.  So the torque evaluations shown are to evaluate the function of the switching wheel for its functional performance with minimal resistance in its overall performance.
The top two lines on the drawing show the function of the switches in the stator assembly that are used in generating the traveling flux wave in the stator assembly.  This function of the switches is what is desired in the motor design in creating the traveling flux wave in the stator assembly.  The following three lines on the drawing show the forces upon the switching wheel assemblies themselves.  These switching wheels to my knowledge have not been used in motor designs before.  Not shown in the drawing are losses that may occur between the stator assembly and the rotor assembly.  Now the flux going through the switching wheel permanent magnet when it becomes a part of the functional magnet shares the flux flow with the two adjacent magnets to it.  The interaction between the rotor permanent magnet and the stator magnets do not create a functional magnet but rather creates torque between the forces of the stator and rotor magnets.  The rotor permanent magnets do not become part of a functional magnet like the switch permanent magnets do with the stationary permanent magnets in the stator assembly.   Since the flux reconfiguration in the stator function is different that the torque created between the rotor and stator assembly, the contribution of the rotor magnet in the motor hopefully will have minimal detrimental effect to the switching wheels function.  The longer the rotor permanent magnet is, the more this should be true in the motor assembly.  This is something that will be learned in the proto-type build:
I have learned the following lessons from the prototype build so far.
1.)    The smaller diameter main shaft along with the length of it creates twisting which is undesirable with the motor design because this changes the switching time between the rotor and stator assembly with load variation.  This will work at a compromised level on the proof of concept motor but a compromised level will not work in real life applications.
2.)   Drilling a hole in the collars and drive shafts using a pin to prevent rotation of the shaft has too much slop in it.  I glued assemblies to the shaft to aid in reducing the slop in that connection.  A better approach needs to be done in the next level of motor designs.
3.)   I used aluminum bases for holding the stationary permanent magnets in the center of the switching wheel assemblies.  In reading other papers, the rotation of the magnets will build up some resistance to movement as Eddi currents are produced in the aluminum parts of the motor.  It is better to use a 3D-printer to create plastic mounting hardware instead.
4.)   I first tried to minimize the distance between the stationary stator magnets and the switching magnets in order to produce the strongest functional magnets in the motor.  The problem is that my switching wheel is about 3.5 inches long with one bearing assembly at the bottom of it.  The magnets being that close had so much torque of attraction in them that the switching wheel pulled the switching magnet against the stationary stator magnet and would not rotate any more.  I had to place shorter switching wheel magnets in the proto-type motor so this would not happen.  This works but the creation of the functional magnets are not as powerful and the rotor assembly magnets cannot come as close to the rotor magnets as a result of it.  This means less torque in the motor assembly.
5.)   I built the prototype motor where the rotor is permanently mounted on the main shaft.  Now I cannot disassembly it from the motor assembly.  This will not be acceptable for the next level of proto-type motor assembly.  Some of the removeable options could have created more issues with this prototype motor than the fix they would provide with the current motor design.
6.)   I used 17 gears, 17 drive shafts and 38 bearings for this proto-type motor in order to reduce the cost of the expensive large diameter gears.  I would pay more for the larger gears and then design the prototype motor with nine gears, 9 drive shafts and 22 bearing assemblies.
7.)   As the rotor crosses over the stator assembly there is torque that will constantly move the rotor forward.  But at the same time, the angle and direction of the torque between the rotor and stator assembly will cycle between a pushing each other apart from each other to that of pulling each other together to each other.  There will be a vibration in the motor that is generated because of these forces.  Now a design where another stator is installed at the other end of the rotor assembly would cancel the vibration when designed correctly.
8.)   The aluminum threaded rods are not as strong and steel ones but non-affected-by-magnetic-material are needed in the design.  I would use thicker aluminum rods next time.

Now for the big question?  How does the continuous torque the rotor has to turn the rotor compare to the switching wheel  losses.  If the losses are less than the rotor forward torque, then the rotor will have continuous movement.  This is before I add the electro-magnets to the rotor assembly.  Since creating a functioning motor on permanent magnets alone is low, building the motor with the alternating electro-magnets into the motor is a must for the proto-type design.  Now with that being said I will be looking to the electro-magnets being fed from an on-board generator.  The on-board approach will allow me to reduce the hardware and circuitry than the conventional way of having a separate motor and generate to operation in motor in a test system.  IF and that is IF the electrical pulses the generator generates on the on-board generator is enough power to power the electromagnets in the rotor to create continuous movement then I would have a COP>1.  This is why I am designing this into the prototype before building the motor.  Even if the on-board generator works on this motor design, the motor would have to have a way to bring the motor up to speed.  One option is to start the motor with another motor and once operational, then the external motor could be removed from the circuit.  Now another option would be to drive the electro-magnets from an external power supply until the motor comes up to speed and then it could be removed.
UPDATE 8-7-20:  I have built and tested the motor described in this section and found out that it does not operate in the “All permanent magnet” format using switching wheels.  The reason is that the switching wheels have too much perpendicular resistance in them compared to the torque created between the rotor and stator assembly in my prototype motor.  There is twice as much perpendicular resistance having the switching wheel provide both a forward switch at the same time a reversing flux magnet operating in the switch.  With a switching configuration only switching a forward torque permanent in and out of the flux path when needed would reduce this resistance in half.   But even with that much reduction in resistance, the resistance will most likely be too great to have an operating motor.  From the things I learned from this, I do not currently believe that any of the motor designs I have come up with will operate with either permanent magnet or magnetic material switching.  The electrical switching will operate the motor, but I am not sure that they can achieve over-unity status without having a circuit that captures and reuses a portion of the electrical energy used to create the magnetic field in the first place.  This requires machine shop built prototypes being built with lab testing evaluating the results.  I do not have either of these things to be able to further develop the three layer electromechanical movement.  I hope that other people will se the value of this technology and pick it up were I have left off with it.
 One of the downfalls of this new technology has been the size and complexity of the motor designs to use this technology.  What I have come up with is a new design that greatly reduces the size and complexity of the motor design that needs to be evaluated.  This design is a result of looking at other people’s designs to see what they are doing and incorporating what I see is the best practices to build the highest efficient electrical motor that comes up to the closest if not exceeds the over-unity status.  This means the motor design operating with the new operating circuits
« Last Edit: August 27, 2020, 11:13:11 PM by Lunkster »

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Offline Lunkster

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Re: All Permanent Magnet failed Prototype
« Reply #1 on: August 29, 2020, 03:11:11 PM »
Does anyone know of a mechanical design where a permanent magnet can be moved into and out of a switching position without creating more resistance to the motor's movement? The switching wheel was not a good design.

The Lunkster

Offline citfta

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Re: All Permanent Magnet failed Prototype
« Reply #2 on: August 29, 2020, 05:28:30 PM »
Hi Lunkster,

Here is a link to a thread where I have posted several videos showing different interactions between magnets that might give you some ideas about switching magnets.

Good luck,

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Re: All Permanent Magnet failed Prototype
« Reply #2 on: August 29, 2020, 05:28:30 PM »
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Offline Lunkster

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Re: All Permanent Magnet failed Prototype
« Reply #3 on: September 02, 2020, 01:22:53 AM »
I am going to salvage the All Permanent Magnet Motor I built by converting the switching wheels into permanent magnets that interact with electromagnets. See attached file.  There will be eight magnetic motors all connected to the main shaft.  Each motor will have a ratio of 4:1 with the main shaft.  This means 32 times the torque of a single magnetic motor.  The main shaft will not be able to hold up to that kind of torque when fully loaded.  I do want to evaluate different generator configurations to see which ones can be built on a 21 inch disk that has the best efficiency.  Please let me know how you would populate the 21 inch disk.

I thank you ahead of time.

The Lunkster