2nd "law" violations > Heat to electric energy conversion

Ambient cycle

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What we can/will espect in the next few years ,wind/solar turbine costs related :


the given example : Nissan Leaf,55,9 Kg,rated 80 KW

Table 1. Comparison of electric motor technologies which reduce or eliminate rare earth magnets.

                              Nissan Leaf traction motor = Reduced NdFeB magnet


Go/No-Go Decision: Motor design meets DOE 2020 specific cost ($4.7/kW)

2012 AEV Motor Mass (55.9 kg, 80 kW)   2012 AEV Motor Price ($938, 80 kW)

Does Not Meet 2015 SC Target $7/kW

 Specific cost (SC): $11.73/kW   and  $938/55,9Kg =   16,8 US$/kg

2020 target: SC=$4.7/kW

Rotor PM 53% dividing with 5 = Iron-Nitrite magnets   https://nironmagnetics.com/



https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/212843716.pdf   TABLE 1

The a-MnBi based bulk magnet may be commercialized if its energy product exceeds 10 MGOe at room temperature. The current state of the art result is close to this target.
The raw materials cost of MnBi is less than $15/kg as of January 2018.

Later :
For L10-FeNi and L10-FeCo, the thermodynamic pathway for the phase formation is either extremely sluggish or non-exist, making it much more difficult to overcome with any conventional metallurgical approach.
 L10-FeNi has the potential to rival the energy product of RE magnet without concern on supply and cost of the raw materials

Stator Cu 10%   changing with Alu or sodium or graphit

If "magnet array" can decrease the production material costs

as given example

and cooling techniques,too
This invention allows for the reduction in size of a high power transformers by a factor of 4 to 8 and a reduction in weight by a factor of 4 to 6, and an increase in power density by 5 to 10 in power. The efficiency of the transformer is improved by maximizing the heat transfer from the transformers interior and minimizing voltage breakdown. The thermal properties of each core 12 will dictate the quantity of the thermally conductive strip 16 material required to lower the transformer temperature to a predetermined level, some testing may be required to established the optimal amount needed to provide proper cooling.[/font][/size]

High power transformer and motor or generator !

this will become as efficiency improvement applied !

And we can calculate with < $ 10/rated KW for 98% efficiency electric generator production price ( for wind conversion less RPM ! = more weight per KW)

Based by this given numbers the calculation 10 000 Euros production price and 15 000 Euros net selling price for 100 KW "airpower"-type generators will become real !


From Roy Kessinger 15 US$/hp to 5 US$/hp electric motor(and generator) production costs development preview in year 2000

https://www.katech.com/katfiles/people.html   https://www.lynxmotiontechnology.com/




and DOE 4,7 US$/rated KW  https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/03/f13/ape051_miller_2013_o.pdf  target

we get in future such compressed power density for motors and generators as standart :



a new generation of axial flux electric motors that deliver 4x more power density

One of our designs has a peak power density of around 15 kilowatts per kilogram.
Compare that with today’s motors, such as the one in the all-electric BMW i3, which delivers a peak power density of 3 kW/kg—or just one-fifth as much.
 And the Magnax machine is also more efficient.

Magnax, a Belgian startup, claims its direct drive motor has a peak power density of 15 kW/kg, with a continuous rating of around 7.5 kW/kg.      RPM !?

Nissan Leaf 2012 traction motor continuous rating : 80 KW/55,9 Kg = 1,43 KW/Kg     RPM !?



Fittingly, Magnax began in the founder’s garage.
In 2015 Peter Leijnen built a prototype of a yokeless axial flux machine for a customer who needed a light generator for a wind turbine project. 8) ;)


Our design can cut costs substantially in a high-volume business—for instance, the production in China of millions of motors of between 1 and 10 kW.
When producing in large quantities, what counts is limiting the cost of the raw materials, which as we’ve shown is significantly lower than for traditional motors.

https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/03/f13/ape051_miller_2013_o.pdf page 9 Motor Mass/Price

Nissan Leaf 2012 traction motor continuous rating : 80 KW/55,9 Kg = 1,43 KW/Kg

Magnax, a Belgian startup, claims its direct drive motor has a peak power density of 15 kW/kg, with a continuous rating of around 7.5 kW/kg. RPM !?

                                         = 2020 target: SC=$4.7/kW

                                                          REACHED ! :)

As generator ,                               for photovoltaic cell production costs comparison :

                                               $4,7/KW = $cents 470 /1000 W = 0,47 US$cent/Wc(ontinuous)
                                                                                                 0,24 US$cent/Wp

Can be,can not be :


A team of professors and students from the Okayama Graduate School of Science and Technology
led by Professor Naoshi Ikeda has built a unique solar cell that uses an iron oxide substrate instead of silicon,
 making the cell not only cheaper, but, as the professor claims, 100 times more powerful than anything based on silicon.

The team’s aim is to build a solar panel that’s capable of generating 1000 watts of electricity 1000 times cheaper than a traditional silicon solar cell.
 Each GF-based cell would cost about $12 and would be flexible, since the ferrite is used in a powdered form.

Life-time ? 1/2 year like A. Marks his Lumilight ? Shorter ?

A commercial product is expected by 2013.   Or 2023,2033 ?

btw : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tesla_Model_3 the RWD model his edrive with 211 kW (283 hp) peak power

                                                                               = 1000 US$ production costs device

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/VW_ID.3#Technische_Daten  equipped with 500-750 US$ production worth/costs edrives

both ,Model 3( 360 Kg batteries weight ,STANDART) and ID.3 (310 -514 Kg the batteries) ,+- same weight 1650 Kg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renault_Kwid   5 US$/Kg endconsumer price as combustion engine car version

We see asian 10 000 US$ endconsumer price electric cars in Model 3 and ID.3 ! (excluded battery : 100 US$/KWh production costs) )

A huge price compared with TATA NANO 2000 US$ ic engine car developped for the indian middle class !

Renault KWID electrique :
The vehicle uses a 26.8 kWh (kock with height) lithium ion battery and is powered by a 44 hp ( 33 kW), 125 N⋅m (92 lb⋅ft) front-mounted electric motor driving the front wheels.

With the price starting at 61,800 yuan ($8,650) after incentives,[47] this electric car is very cheap by Western standards.

 :o  Renault KWID   ic engine power/electric drive power : 1/1 ratio


799 cc BR08DE I3

Power output 33 kW (44 hp)  8)

A 50 hp equivalent  alternative french e-traction drive


The torque integral, depending on the device, of a motor of I ch, at displacement speed of the point of application of the

force at 6000 tm, is the same as the torque integral of a 50 hp engine, which is the same power.

The output torque at the shaft 25 at 6000 rpm, is the same as the output torque of the moving interior device, flywheel.
This device equipped with four 500 wat motors, i.e. 2000 wats, with electronic management, is capable of the same torque and power performance as a motor.

50 hp thermal engine, while providing ancillary services including heating and preheating of the vehicle.5
The average consumption is of the order of IOOO wats per hour.

1000 Watt per hour consume means low battery capacity on board need !

So a 10 000 US$ -before incentives-  Renault eKWID will become available,inclusive middle/long range battery set  :1000 Km min. !

This flywheel-edrive can become also airpower generator alternative ! Generator-flywheel-motor -couple


Our design can cut costs substantially in a high-volume business—for instance, the production (in China ) of millions or billions of motors of between 1 and 10 kW. EVERYWHERE !

Planning an 100 Euros/KW net electric output ambient cycle :

KW/Kg power density comparison ,condition RPM ,Volt,Hz :

unproved static transformer :


The overall dimension of the nominal generator is approximately H4.5 cm×W4.5 cm×L35 cm, not including the casing=708 cm3 (43 In3), not including the automobile battery or computerized control module.

The cyclic output per second is multiplied by 3600 to indicate the generator's hourly rating. Thus, at 400 Hz=60.7 Kva/h; at 800 Hz=121.4 Kva/h; at 3 KHz=460.8 Kva/h; at 6 KHz=921.6 Kva/h; at 60 KHz=9.26 Mw/h; at 600 KLHz=92.166 Kw/h; at 780 KHz=119.7 Mw/h.

At 100 Hz ( equates 6000 RPM household rotative appliances ) and 15 KVA/h divided assumed (708 cm3 a 7 gram/cm3) = near 3 KVA/Kg

at 800 Hz for heating devices (space and water )                                                                                                           near 24 KVA/Kg

Now : rotative motor and generator power densities ,bringing them to a compareable - RPM/Volt/Hz-  level :




https://www.sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/288591 rasertech = rare earth/Lanthaniden free









https://www.bizjournals.com/kansascity/news/2016/03/21/qm-power-electric-motor-pj-piper.html QMpower = Flynn Research




priority date 1996 ergo open source/fee-/licence-free technology

http://www.schillergy.com/pdf/schiller-energy.pdf  up to 10 KW/Kg continuous by 400 Volt condition


" So a 10 000 US$ -before incentives-  Renault eKWID will become available,inclusive middle/long range battery set  :1000 Km min. ! "


In September 2015, the Kwid was launched in India at a starting price of 2.57 lakh rupees,[8] equal to $3,884.

                                                       Probably some means : "Not possible : 10 000 US$ eKwid,before incentives  !"

https://www.bbc.com/news/business-56178802 20 KW electric drive

The Hong Guang Mini EV is being built as part of a joint venture with US car giant General Motors (GM). ;)

A budget electric vehicle (EV) selling in China for $4,500 (£3,200) is now outselling Tesla's more upmarket cars.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renault_Kwid                              $3,884  / 775 kg                  5    US$/Kg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wuling_Hongguang_Mini_EV        $4,500  /   665 kg                6,8 US$/Kg

Renault eKwid by Wuling Mini EV condition                               $5270   /   775 Kg                6,8 US$/Kg


                   1990 !                                                 Empty weight :         830 kg  ( x 6,8 US$  ::) )

It is the first, and until the BMW i3 went on sale in November 2013, it was the only passenger car that was developed, mass-produced and sold to customers in the Federal Republic of Germany exclusively as an electric vehicle.

we will see in future many remakes https://www.pinterest.pt/pin/520588038154507657/

Fiat 500 violated smartcar  :P   and the result as engineered birth :

 like Citroen Ami https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hScjggOSAUU

https://www.spiegel.de/auto/fahrkultur/toyota-ex-ii-von-1969-das-e-ei-a-28c11442-9f7a-481d-9111-63a999c3c530#fotostrecke-01bbaa69-3769-41fc-b227-32db7957e514  Toyoto ExII conceptcar

e-  Tesla,Ferrari,Maserati,Mercedes,....   :                 The cars are being marketed as "the people's commuting tool".  ;)

                            the tool "eKwid,eTesla(based by scratch Lotus-platform),eMaserati,eBentley,....." for 10 000 US$ ,before incentives !

Performance : https://ev.tatamotors.com/#section3 ?

50% less material/costs,also making part :

Lund Uni

https://portal.research.lu.se/portal/files/5566044/26496.pdf  2005 patent-restrictions(no licence/fee) free =Doctor-at,Promotion

                                        transformed,no rare earth mass, uncountable times recycleable

                                          today the most "new" cars fob factory are used and recycled scratch based

                                         car-material to crusher to powder to 4d-reprint machinery

     https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/03/f13/ape051_miller_2013_o.pdf page 9
                            2012         ($938/55.9 kg) as material management ratio : 16,8 US$/Kg

                            2021          first step : 53% Rotor Permanent Magnets /3  by   rasertech,FeNi magnets
                                                             10% Stator Copper                  /2  by   Alu coil or sodium coil/Sines cooling technology
                                                               9% Stator Fe                         /2  by   Lund Uni plastic bonded iron

                                            $938  to +- $520/"55,9 Kg" =          < 10 US$/Kg

                                                as patent-limitationsfree technology global industrial standart

                                                               $520/ 80 KW continuous                         <  6,5 US$/KW

Related  rasertech technology :

https://www.theautochannel.com/news/2005/01/25/011903.html  Symetron(TM) technologies


their now free "Symetron" applications :


                                                      <  6,5 US$/KW production costs for 80 KW units (95% eff.) ,

as base for lower KW e-scooter,heat pump compressor drive (9000 btu for 200 $ average fob factory) ,wind generator turbine  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t9TrUPoevXI, household ( washing/clothes dryer/...) machines,......

similar MAGNAX industrial philosophy :

When producing in large quantities, what counts is limiting the cost of the raw materials, which as we’ve shown is significantly lower than for traditional motors.


 scooter 5 KW by 48 Volts  Active Weight !  to : 5 KW unit total weight    X    < 10 US$/Kg

             5 KW by 230 Volt ?                         Active/Total Weight ?                                             X     < 10 US$/Kg

             1 KW by 230 Volt ?                         Active/Total Weight ?                                             X     < 10 US$/Kg

Roy Kessinger bespoke twenty years before not only the 15$/hp to 5$/hp motor(generator) price development preview
but also the investment need for 1 Mio. production units :
from 250 Mio US$ to 25 Mio. US$

Helmut Schiller his technology allows to 2,5 Mio to 250 000 US$ production investment costs decrease,production units dependent !

Thousands of independent (local/regional) motor/generator producer world-wide spreading !

1 x 250 Mio to 1000 x 250 TSD investment local factories !


up to 10 KW/Kg continuous by 400 Volt condition   X     < 10 US$/Kg

                      =  10 KW/10 US$  = 1 KW/1 US$  motor(or generator) production price

                                                             REACHED ! :) 
                                    condition : Volt,Hz,RPM APPROPRIATE for wished use !

It seems he,H.Schiller, is in work for improvements :
2021  https://nl-nl.facebook.com/photo?fbid=3647440581935366&set=ecnf.100000083812216
a world-record holder by his edrive technology :


Comments by  John Patrick Ettridge ( http://www.geminielectricmotor.com )

 for prototyping scratch reuse :

Teslas electric 4wheel "tools" drive are in that 400 Volt range,400 KW peak = 200 KW continuous :


For later Halbach/Ronbach array motors or generators some configuration info  :


Donnerstag, 11. August 2016, 18:10

Freitag, 12. August 2016, 02:30

MM = Magnet Motor,Starnberg (Ex-AEG,spaeter Daimler Benz-Group )

" le dernier cry" in industrial R&D : https://insideevs.com/news/357824/plastic-electric-motor-reduces-weight/




Planning a cheap - net zero energy- circuit ambient cycle :

how much and how near from this ratio 1 KW/1 US$ (for 80 KW units)production costs can in low/fractional  KW drives become realized ?

Dr.Wolfgang Volkrodt and his rated 100 W (one hundred watts) ! ;)  rated power drive assisting electric bike (in mention !)

                     administration target for the next time :

rated 1 KW permanent magnet electric motor,AC 220V/3000 RPM,with 95% efficiency :  25  US$ per unit mass production costs
                                                                                                                               50  US$  per unit online selling fob factory
                                                                                                                                        ( excluded controler )

               lean price and top quality management !

we take a conventional heat pump with thermal circuit and electric motor/grid circuit :

2021 standart C.O.P. 3 for air/air heat pumps ,means f.e.

9500 BTU = 2780 Watt heat output by average 2780 Watt heat /C.O.P. 3 = 928 Watt AC electric energy input

the electric heat pump drive,from conventional electric motor to roto-verter typus :




30% input energy recuperation the Gordon James couple Trinitymotors.net https://web.archive.org/web/20100412115122/http://www.trinitymotors.net/ let by ,physical prototypes experience ,results !

From C.O.P. 3 / (1                   -  0,3 recuperation =0,7 net input)                      = electric view heat pump  C.O.P. 4,28

 a generating transformer with average C.O.P. 2 function before the electric motor :

        C.O.P. 3 / [( 1/ C.O.P. 2  ) - 0,3 recuperation = 0,2 net input]                     =  electric view heat pump   C.O.P 15

a generating transformer with average C.O.P. 2,5

       C.O.P. 3 / [( 1/ C.O.P. 2,5) - 0,3 recuperation = 0,1 net input )                    =  electric view heat pump   C.O.P. 30

             a generating transformer change from 2 to 2,5 gives heat pump C.O.P. 15 to C.O.P. 30 improvement !

      with generating transformer C.O.P. 1    = heat pump C.O.P. 4,28

      with generating transformer C.O.P. 1,5 = heat pump C.O.P. 8,20

      with generating transformer C.O.P. 3    = heat pump C.O.P. 90,0

     with generator transformer C.O.P. 1,5 to C.O.P. 3  heat pump C.O.P. 8,2 to C.O.P. 90 improvement

                                  this maths field is called : dynamic and/or progression

generating magnet force field transformer we have publicated by Keiichiro Asaoka,Tanaka Saburo and Pavel Imris

and when heat pump electric motor sourced by AC:

inverter for DC/AC inversion from artificial photovoltaic converter like publicated by :


C.O.P. 2  70 Watt out/35 Watt in


C.O.P. 4 650 Watt out/ 156 Watt in


C.O.P. 6 180 Watt out/30 Watt in


C.O.P. 3,5 1920 Watt out/ 500 Watt in

C.O.P. differences by : light source kind,solar cell efficiency(1988 standart/1998 standart/2008 standart/2021 standart ! ) ,with-/out mirror

heat pump C.O.P. 3 / [ (1 / 2,5 photovoltaic converter C.O.P.) -(0,3 x 1,333 David Yurth generator coil coating  recuperation) ]

             = C.O.P. 3 / 0 = net zero energy bi-thermal and electric-cycle system with " infinite C.O.P. "

                                 2,5 photovoltaic converter C.O.P.


70 Watt  1988  solar cell 5,25% efficiency to 15% 2021 efficiency = near 200 Watt
35 Watt  1988  fluoresescent lamp lumen/Watt efficiency to 2021 25 Watt fluorescent lamp equivalence

                     200 Watt out /25 Watt in = C.O.P. ratio  8 ,

                      >  2,5 photovoltaic converter C.O.P.

the old C.O.P. 2,4,6 and 3,5 by low efficiency solar cells improving  with future 45%-90% http://www.novasolix.com/technology efficiencies


instead simple mirror (3M Mylar) foil equipped with https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l1QZAax0-XA

for greater energetic volumes : A(rtificial)P(hoto/Phono=thermal) Converter couple

1.step   C.O.P. 8
2.step   C.O.P. 8 x 8      = C.O.P.    64
3.step   C.O.P. 8 x8 x8   = C.O.P.  512


                                                 "Solar Active House" space and water heating systems

                                                       the system price max. 25 US$/sqm house area

                    200 Euros/sqm "Solar Passive House" architecture with the now ,2021,open source construction technology
                                             Plastikhaus-International ,the Passiv-Haus-Institut Mentor a la LEGO
                                            ( Isorast + LEGO = in Australia sold as ZEGO )

                                            near 1400 KWh/176 sqm = < 10 Wp/sqm
                                            http://www.habiter-autrement.org/12.energies/16_ener.htm 1975 eco-standart

                                            and 20 Euros/sqm Solar Active heat/cooling system


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