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Author Topic: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1  (Read 163459 times)

Offline lancaIV

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Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #390 on: December 14, 2020, 11:36:50 AM »
Good. But if the efficiency the frequencies ran the heater elements could be used to run dc motors, tv etc, it would have been a great thing
Sokolov,Vladimir  recitating :

The present invention aims at achieving a considerably higher efficiency in feeding an electrical load as compared to the prior art, in particular in the case of ohmic loads, e.g. incandescent bulbs, but also with purely or mainly inductive or capacitive loads, which are of poor efficiency, so as to obtain an enhanced exploitation of electrical energy.

Sincerely
OCWL

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy


Offline Leely

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Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #391 on: December 14, 2020, 11:57:04 AM »
I used a blocking oscillator with secondary,  and found out that  it  ran three bulbs brightly than when I connected them directly to the battery. And they seemed to run longer than when they were connected directly to the battery. It seemed this was the same concept which Gerard Morini ran his loads. Or did he show any looped device?

Offline lancaIV

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Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #392 on: December 14, 2020, 01:06:23 PM »
This is George1 his tread,
so we should try to stay in-topic !
A. Efficiency ≤100%  ≥0% input/output comparison

1.simple circuit
2.oscillation circuit
3.coil material,circuit elements reactive velocity/speed limit,specific frequency,
resonance frequency ,limit ,physical : resonance catastrophe ~ destruction ( solid to grain : ultra-sonic crusher )


Question as analog motor/generator related,AC !: conventional only AC-motor with no generator function
                                                                                conventional AC-generator with no motor function                                         
                                                                                AC-motor as AC generator : over /under nominal RPM /non/net grid frequency
                                                                                AC generator as motor : nominal generator RPM,as motor ?

What is "efficiency" ,nearly 100% but :
https://worldwide.espacenet.com/searchResults?submitted=true&locale=en_EP&DB=EPODOC&ST=advanced&TI=&AB=&PN=&AP=&PR=&PD=&PA=richard+fradella&IN=&CPC=&IC=&Submit=Search
https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&II=1&ND=3&adjacent=true&locale=en_EP&FT=D&date=20121011&CC=US&NR=2012256422A1&KC=A1#
0090]    Generator power and efficiency with wind turbine drive is computed below, for a representative example of the present invention, at maximum shaft speed, mid-speed, and minimum usable speed, using a few simplifying approximations. Shaft speed, power, and the other variables in the computations herebelow are exemplary, and not intended as limiting the present invention in any way. This will help explain FIG. 1 and FIG. 2 configuration operation, distinctions and improvements over widely used prior art generators:

    [0091]    Let maximum speed equal 1000 revolutions per minute (rpm), mid-speed equal 500 rpm, and minimum speed equal 100 rpm. Also, let maximum stator current Imax=10 amperes, and nominal VDC=100 volts. Further, let Q1-Q4 power MOSFET ON resistance Rdson=0.01 ohm, inductor L1-L4 series pair winding resistance RL=0.1 ohm. Also, stator winding resistance Rs=0.15 ohm, stator voltage Vmax=100 volts at 1000 rpm, and fly-back (free-wheeling) diode D1-D8 forward drop Vf=1-volt at 10 amp. These parameters are consistent with a test prototype, according to the present invention, developed to generate power from wind turbines.

    [0092]    At 1000 rpm, Vmax=100 volts, so PWM duty-cycle (Ton)/(Ton+Toff) is essentially zero. Therefore, losses=Imax<2>(RL+Rs)+2 VfImax=(10 amp)<2>(0.25 ohm)+(2 volt)(10 amp), amounting to 45 watts loss. Output power=(Imax)*(Vmax)=(Imax)*(VDC)=(10 amp)(100 volts)=1000 watts. So, generator efficiency at maximum speed and maximum power is about 95% for this example of generator and integrated electronics parameters.

 [0093]    At 500 rpm, Imax=(10 amp)/(4)=2.5 amps; and Vmax=(100 volts)*(0.5)=50 volts. So PWM duty-cycle=1⁄2. Average pulse power generated=(Imax)*(Vmax)=(Imax)*(VDC)/2=(2.5 amp)(50 volt)=125 watts. Losses to maintain inductor current=Imax<2>(RL+Rs+Ron)=(2.5 amp)<2>(0.26 ohm)=1.6 watts. Fly-back diode losses=2 Vf*Imax/2=(0.6 v)(2.5 amp)=1.5 watts. So total losses=3.1 watts. Therefore, mid-speed generator efficiency is about 97%.

 [0094] At 100 rpm, Imax=(10 amp)/(100)=0.1 amp; and Vmax=(100 volts)/(10)=10-volts. So PWM duty-cycle= 9/10. Average pulse power generated=(Imax)*(Vmax)=(Imax)*(VDC)/10=(0.1 amp)(10 v)=1 watt. Losses to maintain stator and inductor current=Imax<2>(RL+Rs+2*Rdson)=(0.1 amp)<2>(0.27 ohm)=0.0027-watt. Fly-back diode losses=(2*Vf)*(Imax)/10=(0.6 v)(0.1 a)/5=0.012 watts. So total losses=0.015-watt. Thus, generator efficiency at low speed is about 98%.

    [0095]    Note that, although the generator according to the present invention is self-starting (so that it need not be connected to a power source, to begin power generation), the minimum speed of the above power and efficiency computation must be reached, before the signal processing electronics will function as required. Also, MOSFET gate driver under-voltage lockout should prevent PWM drive to Q1-Q4 in FIG. 1 until the minimum voltage of approximately 8-volts is reached. Moreover, a few watts is needed from the stator windings, rectified by D9-D12, which is used to supply Power Control Electronics 5.

    [0096]    At the lowest usable shaft speed of 100 rpm in the above representative example, the 10-volt peak stator voltage generated would be adequate for all signal processing and PWM drive electronics, so this generator would be self-starting when turbine speed reaches 100 rpm. However, with a few watts quiescent power for the Power Control Electronics, power supplied to the load at 100 rpm would be zero until wind speed increases to above 100 rpm.


Wattoutput from nominal 1000W generator with nominal 1000 RPM :

                                            variable speed diagram(m)  variable velocity diagram(m)
Motor with nominal 1000 W and nominal 1000 RPM ?


Behaviour comparison with f.e.  JNaudin push&pull



https://worldwide.espacenet.com/searchResults?submitted=true&locale=en_EP&DB=EPODOC&ST=advanced&TI=&AB=&PN=&AP=&PR=&PD=&PA=&IN=victor+arestov&CPC=&IC=&Submit=Search
https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&II=1&ND=3&adjacent=true&locale=en_EP&FT=D&date=20110804&CC=US&NR=2011187319A1&KC=A1#
Work it out,with e-paper to paper copy and with different colours pencils=priorities something new,unexpected ? Norm :abnorm ?!

https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/originalDocument?FT=D&date=20080812&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP&CC=US&NR=7411363B2&KC=B2&ND=4#
Description,recitation :

Efficiency=(100%)*(Mechanical power output)/(Electrical power input).
The present disclosure has evaluated numerous conventional motor-related circuits and identified new methods that realize power conservation that is approximately 150% to around 200% better than conventionally available motors.

electric motor/transformer physical -theoretical- efficiency  versus industrial -warranty safety limited - motor/transformer efficiency


F.e. as reference
https://worldwide.espacenet.com/searchResults?submitted=true&locale=en_EP&DB=EPODOC&ST=advanced&TI=&AB=&PN=&AP=&PR=&PD=&PA=&IN=fred+miekka&CPC=&IC=&Submit=Search




 specific :           

    Increased power output is achieved by more completely utilizing the magnetic field of motor permanent magnets during running.

            https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&II=11&ND=3&adjacent=true&locale=en_EP&FT=D&date=20020425&CC=US&NR=2002047346A1&KC=A1#









https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&II=0&ND=3&adjacent=true&locale=en_EP&FT=D&date=20010710&CC=US&NR=6259347B1&KC=B1#
The strips direct excess heat from within the interior to protrusions outside of the windings (and core) where forced air or thermally conductive potting compound extracts the heat. This technique provides for a significant reduction of weight and volume along with a substantial increase in the power density while operating at a modest elevated temperature above ambient.
2. Description of the Related Art

    The power rating of present-day electrical devices, such as power transformers and motors, is limited by heat accumulation due to resistive losses in the copper windings and, in the case of power transformers, to losses from eddy currents and hysteresis within the iron or ferrite cores. It is not generally recognized that the magnetic flux within a transformer core remains approximately constant when the power output is increased. It is therefore unnecessary to increase the amount of iron or ferrite core material to increase the size of the transformer core in order to deliver more power. The trapped heat produced by the windings while operating at high power is the major limiting factor for high power transformers.

    Different approaches have been attempted to try and remove heat from the core of power transformers. Some of these are the increasing of wire size to reduce resistive losses; immersion of the transformer in circulating coolant oil; air cooling of the transformer windings; increasing the operating frequency of the transformer to reduce windings; and increasing the thermal conductivity of the insulating potting compound around the transformer windings. All of these, however, impact on the mechanical size and weight of the transformer designs limiting the use of these applications. Without proper cooling the efficiency and reliability of these transformers and motors are considerably reduced.
...................









Experiment-Protocol/Report

Like Otto Sabljaric /Roberto TPU ECD "open source"-ing for peers review
https://docplayer.org/103574544-Tpu-ecd-energy-conversion-device-energkonverter-offenlegung-von-otto-sabljaric-roberto-notte.html

Only recommendation !

Sincere
OCWL
« Last Edit: December 14, 2020, 07:02:10 PM by lancaIV »

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #392 on: December 14, 2020, 01:06:23 PM »
Sponsored links:




Offline Leely

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Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #393 on: December 14, 2020, 01:57:18 PM »
It's ok. It's just that some of us pass through the same tunnel at times to get the same thing.

Offline NdaClouDzzz

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Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #394 on: December 14, 2020, 06:19:47 PM »
Good. But if the efficiency the frequencies ran the heater elements could be used to run dc motors, tv etc, it would have been a great thing

A little off topic, but worth a look: https://youtu.be/uNYUu1VL1aM

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #394 on: December 14, 2020, 06:19:47 PM »
Sponsored links:




Offline lancaIV

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Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #395 on: December 14, 2020, 07:05:10 PM »
A little off topic, but worth a look: https://youtu.be/uNYUu1VL1aM

and
   (https://overunity.com/Themes/default/images/post/xx.gif)   Re: Kapanadze Cousin - DALLY FREE ENERGY  « Reply #22790 on: Today at 03:45:39 PM »  Quote
  Quote<blockquote>#22766 ? </blockquote>
Yes. similar. Also coaxial-waveguide.
In general, this topic with the Lithuanians has haunted me for many years.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&II=0&ND=3&adjacent=true&locale=en_EP&FT=D&date=19941208&CC=DE&NR=4318270A1&KC=A1#


D´accord ?

Sincere
OCWL

p.s.: https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/mosaics?CC=ES&NR=2265253A1&KC=A1&FT=D&ND=3&date=20070201&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP#

Offline Leely

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Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #396 on: December 15, 2020, 09:46:25 AM »
A little off topic, but worth a look: https://youtu.be/uNYUu1VL1aM
Yeah. If you see in the video where the motor was running, in my experiment, the torque of the motor did not exceed that of the battery, but the brightness and the heat from the bulb exceeded that of the battery. In other words, the motor may not have collected every power from the output. Maybe it will be of a good purpose to redesign the output rectification system, having in mind that the dc motor should run as strong as it ran directly from the input power or even stronger.

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #396 on: December 15, 2020, 09:46:25 AM »
Sponsored links:




Offline NdaClouDzzz

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Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #397 on: December 15, 2020, 10:57:29 AM »
Yeah. If you see in the video where the motor was running, in my experiment, the torque of the motor did not exceed that of the battery, but the brightness and the heat from the bulb exceeded that of the battery. In other words, the motor may not have collected every power from the output. Maybe it will be of a good purpose to redesign the output rectification system, having in mind that the dc motor should run as strong as it ran directly from the input power or even stronger.

I believe that what we see in the video I linked to above is what Don Smith referred to as "chasing the electrical side, it will die a heat death". At no point during that stage that he shows in the video should he be tapping it for electricity to power a load. Instead he should have forgone the second primary (black coil that he tapped to run the loads) and instead used the magnetic field from the first primary coil (parallel LC) to induce a very high voltage in the long tesla-like coil (which needs to be tuned to resonate with the primary coil), and then rectified that high voltage output to pulsating DC which then is used as the positive potential in an electrostatic induction scheme similar to that demonstrated by Don Smith to pull a much MUCH larger amount of negative charges (electrons) from earth ground than that used to run the whole system. Essentially this scheme takes the place of the hand-held device used by Don in his demo (see video's) and is what Don did in many of his systems and referred to as "magnetic resonance" (as in the primary LC). (In many of Don's devices he used multiple processes, and magnetic resonance was one of those processes. Which device/s used which processes has confused many researchers). If done properly, it is electrostatic induction on steroids and the means for all of the free-energy one could ever need. Basically you can look at it as a circuit that allows you to plug into the vast charge of the earth battery.

https://youtu.be/yLjt3y1_ceY?t=3892

https://youtu.be/oyionE-sCis?t=3112 (battery powered, no ground loop)

A little more on topic here: https://overunity.com/18239/the-solution/
« Last Edit: December 15, 2020, 03:35:36 PM by NdaClouDzzz »

Offline lancaIV

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Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #398 on: December 15, 2020, 11:27:34 AM »
I believe that what we see in the video I linked to above is what Don Smith referred to as "chasing the electrical side, it will die a heat death". At no point during that stage that he shows in the video should he be tapping it for electricity to power a load. Instead he should have forgone the second primary (black coil that he tapped to run the loads) and instead used the magnetic field from the first primary coil (parallel LC) to induce a very high voltage in the long tesla-like coil (which needs to be tuned to resonate with the primary coil), and then rectified that high voltage output to pulsating DC which then is used as the positive potential in an electrostatic induction scheme similar to that demonstrated by Don Smith to pull a much MUCH larger amount of negative charges (electrons) from earth ground than that used to run the whole system. Essentially this scheme takes the place of the hand-held device used by Don in his demo (see video's) and is what Don did in many of his systems and referred to as "magnetic resonance" (as in the primary LC). (In many of Don's devices he used multiple processes, and magnetic resonance was one of those processes. Which device/s used which processe/s has confused many researchers). If done properly, it is electrostatic induction on steroids and the means for all of the free-energy one could ever need. Basically you can look at it as a circuit that allows you to plug into the vast charge of the earth battery.

https://youtu.be/yLjt3y1_ceY?t=3892

https://youtu.be/oyionE-sCis?t=3112 (battery powered, no ground loop)
we R leving/leaving the topic,pardon-moi,George1 ! :
More than only 1 or 2 trials,a brider overview about diversity this "phenomen" related :


https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&q=peswiki+magnetic+resonance+amplifier

                                               + Measurement Method comparison

https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&ei=bpDYX92XF8ibgQbtjIDQAw&q=kanarev+pulse+power&oq=kanarev+pulse+power&gs_lcp=CgZwc3ktYWIQDDIECAAQHlDPcVj7c2DbhQFoAHAAeACAAbgBiAGmA5IBAzAuM5gBAKABAaoBB2d3cy13aXrAAQE&sclient=psy-ab&ved=0ahUKEwjdhuGO5M_tAhXITcAKHW0GADoQ4dUDCAw

                                                                     !!!
http://www.rexresearch.com/mra/1mra.htm#error

Clarification of MRA Test Conditions Institute for Advanced Studies / EarthTech International, Inc.
 Scott Little & H. E. Puthoff
 3 February 1995

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_E._Puthoff




Therefore it was not a matter of MRA performance but a matter of measurement technique that disconfirmed the over-unity results.


In our original report we explained why the methods of McClain and Wooten yield erroneous results.
 For the basic AC circuit theory that underlies our discussion we would recommend any of a number of excellent texts on this subject, for example "Principles of Linear Networks" by Friedland, Wing & Ash, McGraw-Hill, 1961


https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&q=%22Principles+of+Linear+Networks%22+by+Friedland%2C+Wing+%26+Ash%2C+McGraw-Hill%2C+1961


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabriel_Kron   
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diakoptics

https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&q=%22Diakoptics+%E2%80%94+The+Piecewise+Solution+of+Large-Scale+Systems%22




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dennis_Gabor
Gabor also researched how human beings communicate and hear; the result of his investigations was the theory of granular synthesis, although Greek composer Iannis Xenakis claimed that he was actually the first inventor of this synthesis technique.[20] Gabor's work in this and related areas was foundational in the development of time–frequency analysis.

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #398 on: December 15, 2020, 11:27:34 AM »
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Offline Leely

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Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #399 on: December 15, 2020, 10:47:37 PM »
I believe that what we see in the video I linked to above is what Don Smith referred to as "chasing the electrical side,...
You see, Don Smith had his variation, I have my variation, Babosa and leal have their variation, Nelson Rochas has his variation. You do not explain something based on only one man's opinion. Don Smith's work was purely from Tesla. That coil is Tesla coil, not Don Smith coil. Don Smith did Tesla's work, raw, unrefined. Variations today are still from Tesla.

Offline Floor

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Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #400 on: December 15, 2020, 11:14:05 PM »
The topic is that electrolysis of water is O.U..

I DO NOT say absolutely, that there hasn't been and cannot be any O.U..

I only say that there is No reason to believe that conventional
/ typical electrolysis is O.U. and that no evidence, NONE, has been
given by the topics originator, but instead, only the confused,  misapplication of formulas.

  floor

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #400 on: December 15, 2020, 11:14:05 PM »
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Offline NdaClouDzzz

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Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #401 on: December 15, 2020, 11:54:42 PM »
You do not explain something based on only one man's opinion.

It's called economizing. You obviously got the gist, which was the intent. But thank you for the lecture ;)
Cheers

Offline lancaIV

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Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #402 on: December 16, 2020, 02:12:32 AM »
You see, Don Smith had his variation, I have my variation, Babosa and leal have their variation, Nelson Rochas has his variation. You do not explain something based on only one man's opinion. Don Smith's work was purely from Tesla. That coil is Tesla coil, not Don Smith coil. Don Smith did Tesla's work, raw, unrefined. Variations today are still from Tesla.
Nikola Tesla (serbisch-kyrillisch Никола Тесла; * 10. Juli 1856 in Smiljan, Kroatische Militärgrenze, Kaisertum Österreich; † 7. Januar 1943

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Daniel_RuhmkorffHeinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff (Rühmkorff) (15 January 1803 in Hanover – 20 December 1877 in Paris) was a German instrument maker who commercialised the induction coil (often referred to as the Ruhmkorff coil.)


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicholas_Callan
the " first transformer ",first DC/AC-inverter

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Grafton_Page

who developed innovative work with natural phenomena through direct observation and experimenting
Page developed a deep understanding of electromagnetism

 pursuing his own ill-fated dream of electromagnetic locomotion  : we calls it "perpetuum mobile"  ;)


challenging the rising scientific elitism that maintained 'the scientific do not patent' 8)



specific: Family life
 "portable electrophorus,"
 he experimented with electricity, demonstrated effects that no one had observed before, and improvised original apparatus that amplified these effects.[6]   

Scientific accomplishments



My work,not,
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yMR45cZbvDw&list=LLKk2eVKooIl1t6KHULYhEVQ&index=941 :P
Thomaner,peh,peh und noch amoi: peh ! ;D ;)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fhJ_wKSWZao  :)

but information management,giving source find ,references

https://www.biblegateway.com/verse/en/Romans%2013%3A7
AMPCRender to all men their dues. [Pay] taxes to whom taxes are due, revenue to whom revenue is due, respect to whom respect is due, and honor to whom honor is due.


Application "induction coil" :
https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/description?CC=FR&NR=667647A&KC=A&FT=D&ND=3&date=19291018&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_EP#


Multiple "induction coil"-s array/cascade :
https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&II=2&ND=3&adjacent=true&locale=en_EP&FT=D&date=19940318&CC=FR&NR=2695768A3&KC=A3#

https://translate.google.com/translate?sl=auto&tl=en&u=https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elektromotorische_Kraft

And CAUTION ! by experiments ! Life and fire danger !
« Last Edit: December 16, 2020, 12:38:30 PM by lancaIV »

Offline George1

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Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #403 on: December 16, 2020, 01:07:14 PM »
Thank you for your numerous replies. As if all these replies confirm the validity my last post. So for your convenience I am giving it below again. 
============================
IMPORTANT NOTE. THIS DISCUSSION IS FOCUSED SOLELY AND ONLY ON DC WATER-SPLITTING ELECTROLYSIS! AND ON NOTHING ELSE!
============================
1) The correct equation, related to the law of conservation of energy in any standard DC water-splitting electrolysis process, is
V x I x t = (I x I x R x t) + (Z x I x t x (HHV)) + (X) (1B),
where
V x I x t = input energy = electric energy, which is generated by the DC source, and which is consumed by the electrolyzer
I x I x R x t = Q = Joule's heat, which is generated by the electrolyzer = output energy 1
Z x I x t x (HHV) = output energy 2 = heat, which is generated by burning/exploding of the released hydrogen
X = output energy 3 = sum of all additional energies, which are necessary (a) for splitting of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen atoms, (b) for collateral chemical reactions due to the impurity of the electrolyte, (c) for forming of bubbles etc., etc.
----------------------------------
2) It is evident from the above equality (1B) that (V x I x t) is the sum and that (I x I x R x t), (Z x I x t x (HHV)) and (X) are the addends, respectively.
----------------------------------
3) According to the rules of standard arithmetic the sum is always bigger than any of the addends (forming that same sum). Therefore the
sum (V x I x t) is bigger than the addend (I x I x R x t). Therefore we can write down the inequality V x I x t > I x I x R x t (2B).
----------------------------------
4) Now let us divide both sides of inequality (2B) by (I x t), that is,
V x I x t > I x I x R x t (2B) < = >
< = > (V x I x t)/(I x t) > (I x I x R x t)/(I x t) (3B) < = >
< = > V > I x R (4B).
-----------------------------------
5) The last inequality (4B) shows a severe violation of Ohm's law. (Because the correct mathematical expression for Ohm's law is V = I x R (5B), isn't it?)
-----------------------------------
6) The obvious invalidity of inequality V > I x R (4B) directly leads to the invalidity of equality V x I x t = (I x I x R x t) + (Z x I x t x (HHV)) + (X) (1B). Therefore the law of conservation of energy is not valid in this particular water-splitting electrolysis case. (Any rule/law has its exceptions and there is nothing special, tragic and disturbing in this fact.)
------------------------------------
IMPORTANT NOTE. THIS DISCUSSION IS FOCUSED SOLELY AND ONLY ON DC WATER-SPLITTING ELECTROLYSIS! AND ON NOTHING ELSE!
------------------------------------
DO YOU HAVE ANY THEORETICAL (ONLY THEORETICAL!) OBJECTIONS AGAINST THE TEXT ABOVE?

Offline George1

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  • Posts: 884
Re: A SIMPLE ELECTRIC HEATER, WHICH HAS EFFICIENCY GREATER THAN 1
« Reply #404 on: December 16, 2020, 01:15:21 PM »
Thank you for your numerous replies. As if all these replies confirm the validity my last post. So for your convenience I am giving it below again. 
============================
IMPORTANT NOTE. THIS DISCUSSION IS FOCUSED SOLELY AND ONLY ON DC WATER-SPLITTING ELECTROLYSIS! AND ON NOTHING ELSE!
============================
1) The correct equation, related to the law of conservation of energy in any standard DC water-splitting electrolysis process, is
V x I x t = (I x I x R x t) + (Z x I x t x (HHV)) + (X) (1B),
where
V x I x t = input energy = electric energy, which is generated by the DC source, and which is consumed by the electrolyzer
I x I x R x t = Q = Joule's heat, which is generated by the electrolyzer = output energy 1
Z x I x t x (HHV) = output energy 2 = heat, which is generated by burning/exploding of the released hydrogen
X = output energy 3 = sum of all additional energies, which are necessary (a) for splitting of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen atoms, (b) for collateral chemical reactions due to the impurity of the electrolyte, (c) for forming of bubbles etc., etc.
----------------------------------
2) It is evident from the above equality (1B) that (V x I x t) is the sum and that (I x I x R x t), (Z x I x t x (HHV)) and (X) are the addends, respectively.
----------------------------------
3) According to the rules of standard arithmetic the sum is always bigger than any of the addends (forming that same sum). Therefore the
sum (V x I x t) is bigger than the addend (I x I x R x t). Therefore we can write down the inequality V x I x t > I x I x R x t (2B).
----------------------------------
4) Now let us divide both sides of inequality (2B) by (I x t), that is,
V x I x t > I x I x R x t (2B) < = >
< = > (V x I x t)/(I x t) > (I x I x R x t)/(I x t) (3B) < = >
< = > V > I x R (4B).
-----------------------------------
5) The last inequality (4B) shows a severe violation of Ohm's law. (Because the correct mathematical expression for Ohm's law is V = I x R (5B), isn't it?)
-----------------------------------
6) The obvious invalidity of inequality V > I x R (4B) directly leads to the invalidity of equality V x I x t = (I x I x R x t) + (Z x I x t x (HHV)) + (X) (1B). Therefore the law of conservation of energy is not valid in this particular water-splitting electrolysis case. (Any rule/law has its exceptions and there is nothing special, tragic and disturbing in this fact.)
------------------------------------
IMPORTANT NOTE. THIS DISCUSSION IS FOCUSED SOLELY AND ONLY ON DC WATER-SPLITTING ELECTROLYSIS! AND ON NOTHING ELSE!
------------------------------------
DO YOU HAVE ANY THEORETICAL (ONLY THEORETICAL!) OBJECTIONS AGAINST THE TEXT ABOVE?

 

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