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Author Topic: Hydrogen + metal = surprising reactions without plasmas  (Read 290 times)

Offline ramset

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Hydrogen + metal = surprising reactions without plasmas
« on: November 18, 2018, 03:46:49 PM »
UNDER CONSTRUCTION __

Repost From Dr.Steven Jones [member DR.Jones]
DR.Jones---Quote.
  So this topic is not really new, but it is certainly developing.  I'm following, very interested.  Mostly the research is done in Italy and Japan.  This from the October 2018 paper from the Celani team in Italy:------------------------------------------
Quote ..Anomalous Heat Effects (AHE) have been observed in wires of Cu55Ni44Mn1 (Constantan) exposed to H2 and D2 in multiple experiments along the last 8 years. Improvements in the magnitude and reproducibility of AHE were reported by the Authors of the present work in the past and related to wire preparation and reactor design. In facts, an oxidation of the wires by pulses of electrical current in air creates a rough surface featuring a sub-micrometric texture that proved particularly effective at inducing thermal anomalies when temperature exceeds 400 °C.
     The hunted effect appears also to be increased substantially by deposing segments of the wire with a series of elements (such as Fe, Mn, Sr, K, via thermal decomposition of their nitrates applied from a water solution). Furthermore, an increase of AHE was observed after introducing the treated wires inside a sheath made of borosilicate glass (Si-B-Ca; BSC), and even more after impregnating the sheath with the same elements used to coat the wires. Finally, AHE was augmented after introducing equally spaced knots (the knots were coated with the mixture of Fe, Mn, Sr, K) to induce thermal gradients along the wire (knots become very hot spots when a current is passed along the wire). Interestingly, the coating appears to be nearly insulating and it is deemed being composed of mixed oxides of the corresponding elements (mostly FeOx, SrO). Having observed a degradation of the BSC fibers at high temperature, an extra sheath made of quartz fibers was used to prevent the fall of degraded fibers from the first sheath; recently the 2 sheaths assembly has been replaced with a hybrid single sheath developed by SIGI-Favier (i.e. made of both glass and quartz fibers). The treated wire, comprising knots and sheaths, was then wound around a SS316 rod and inserted inside a thick glass reactor. The reactor operates via direct current heating of the treated wire, while exposing it to a 5-2000 mBar of D2 or H2 and their mixtures with a noble gas (in these conditions electromigration phenomena are supposed to occur).

In 2014, the Authors introduced a second independent wire in the reactor design and observed a weak electrical current flowing in it while power was supplied to the first. This current proved to be strongly related to the temperature of the first wire and clearly turned to be the consequence of his Thermionic Emission (where the treated wire represents a Cathode and the second wire an Anode). The presence of this thermionic effect and a spontaneous tension between the two wires did strongly associate to AHE. All these observations were reported at various Conferences, and tentative explanations were provided for the observed effects. The presence of thermal and chemical gradients has been stressed as being of relevance, especially when considering the noteworthy effect of knots on AHE.
       The ICCF21 Conference held on June 2018 marked a turning point, and the scientific community did show a notable interest on the effects of knots and wire treatments, further increasing the confidence on the described approach. From that moment, attempts to further increase AHE focused on the introduction of different types of knots, leading to the choice of the “Capuchin” type (see fig.). This knot design leads indeed to very hot spots along the wire and features three areas characterized by a temperature delta up to several hundred degrees. Efforts were also made to better understand the thermionic effect of the wire, and the spontaneous tension that arises when a second wire is introduced close by (anode). Eventually a large AHE rise was noticed when introducing an extra tension between the active wire (cathode) and the second wire (anode) through an external power supply; a truly remarkable effect, despite his short duration due to the wire failure attributed to an AHE runaway able to melt it. Eventually the authors have observed a stunning similarity of the best performing reactor design and a thermionic diode where the active wire represents the cathode and the second wire the anode, whereas the electrodes are separated by fibrous layers impregnated with mixed oxides comprising Iron and alkaline metals. This observation allows to speculate on a thermionic power converter able to generate electricity through the thermionic emission of a cathode heated by AHE and collected by an anode (colder and/or featuring a different work function with respect to the cathode). The presentation, summarized in this abstract, reports the latest AHE results obtained from a new reactor design comprising capuchin knots and hybrid sheaths manufactured for the purpose.

Figure content uploaded by Francesco Celani

Figures can be seen here:  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326991285_First_evaluation_of_coated_Constantan_wires_comprising_Capuchin_knots_to_increase_anomalous_heat_and_reduce_input_power_at_high_temperatures
Below  is a photo and corresponding drawing of one of the "knots" in the Constantan wire where the reactions evidently occur:
end quote
Note topic under construction
respectfully
Chet
PSALL COMMENTS WELCOME
« Last Edit: November 18, 2018, 11:33:24 PM by ramset »

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy


Offline ramset

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Re: Hydrogen + metal = surprising reactions without plasmas
« Reply #1 on: November 18, 2018, 11:35:34 PM »
Dr.Jones...
Quote  Note that nickel metal and H2 (also D2) are used here.   I believe the first to claim anomalous heat production (AHP) from metals + H2, from H2O in his case, was Peter Davey of New Zealand in the 1940's.(We've discussed his work in a different thread).

   Now the research focusses on H2 and D2 gas entering nickel (also other metals) at elevated temps (but well below plasma temps).  It seems important that the metal lattice be present.

 Hence, a solid lattice is needed for the (presumed nuclear) reaction to occur.  That is what is so surprising, that a nuclear (not d-d fusion) reaction appears to occur at a sufficient rate for heat to be observed and measured.


Figures can be seen here:  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326991285_First_evaluation_of_coated_Constantan_wires_comprising_Capuchin_knots_to_increase_anomalous_heat_and_reduce_input_power_at_high_temperatures
Below  is a photo and corresponding drawing of one of the "knots" in the Constantan wire where the reactions evidently occur:
end quote

Offline ramset

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Re: Hydrogen + metal = surprising reactions without plasmas
« Reply #2 on: November 22, 2018, 01:14:18 AM »
An Update today from Dr.Jones

Quote
Hydrogen-Nickel Reactions  Let me focus on what appears to be the most promising approach right now for hydrogen-metal reactions – and that is when the metal chosen is nickel, a cheap and abundant metal.  I acknowledge that when nickel is in the presence of other metals (e.g., an alloy), the reaction may be enhanced. 

  There are just five naturally-occuring isotopes of Nickel, these are:
58Ni  68%

60Ni  26%

61Ni  1.1%
62Ni  3.6%

64Ni  0.9%

Now the reaction that I and several others came up with, about the same time – is this:  add a proton to the nucleus!  The physicist will say, “But the Coulomb-barrier against the proton entering the nucleus is huge!”  And I will answer:
 1 – First, the proton does not need to go over the barrier; it can possibly tunnel through the barrier (a quantum-mechanical process)
 2 – Recall that the surprisingly high rate of d-d fusion observed in metals, which my team first discovered & published in Nature, has been verified (references), yet is not fully understood theoretically.  To me, experiments trump theory when theory is lagging behind experiments, which happens surprisingly often.  (Recall that high-temp superconductivity is not well understood theoretically, yet Nature allows it to occur even though our theory lags behind!) 
  3 – The proposed reaction occurs in the metal-catalyzed matrix, just as low-level (so far) d-d fusion is enhanced in metals (an empirical fact).  This environment for nuclear reactions is unique.

   We can look up the masses of the nuclear reactants and resultant products, and we see that substantial energy is released (call it ∆E) during the hypothesized proton + Ni-nucleus reactions.  We are not talking about creating energy out of nothing!  Rather, we apply Einstein's equation, ∆E = ∆mc2 .

58Ni  + p →  59Cu   which then decays by β+ emission;

60Ni  + p →  61Cu   which then decays by β+ emission

61Ni  + p →  62Cu   which then decays by β+ emission
62Ni  + p →  63Cu   which is stable (does not decay)
64Ni  + p →  65Cu   which is stable (does not decay)

In a chart of nuclides, we find the masses involved and calculate straightforwardly the energy released in each (fusion-type nuclear) reaction, for example, 58Ni plus a proton:

M of proton = 1.007276467 u
M of 58Ni = 57.9353429 u
Adding these we find that th ue mass of reactants = 1.00727646688u +  57.9353429 =  58.942619367 u
And the mass of the resulting  59Cu (postulated) = 58.9394980 u
Then -∆m = Minitial – Mfinal = (1.00727646688 +  57.9353429) u - 58.9394980 u = 58.942619367 -  58.9394980 = 0.003121367 u
We multiply this by the speed-of-light squared, to get the energy released in the reaction, and convert to a standard unit of energy  (MeV = Million-electron-Volts, and 931.5 MeV/c2 = 1 u)
and we find: 
∆E = ∆mc2 = 2.908 MeV per reaction.

Turns out that is a lot of energy released, considering that many many reactions are possible per second.  These reactions would in turn result in radioactive products that would release β+ emission, which don't travel far in matter.  The next product would be gamma-rays mostly at 1.011 MeV, which are easy to shield against.

   Since Nature has surprised us before, she may do so again.  It may be that the reactions resulting in stable (non-radioactive) copper might dominate the process, so there would finally be but few gammas relative to the large heat energy released:
62Ni  + p →  63Cu   
64Ni  + p →  65Cu   
  All of these isotopes are stable, that is, not radioactive at all.  Only experiments will tell.

   In my own experiments along these lines, I have focussed on using electrolysis to place protons in the nickel matrix.  Then I measure heat production.  My results are occasionally up to 1.09 of “anomalous power”.  I'm still working on achieving 100% reproducibility, which is the great ELUSIVE goal in this field at the moment.

   My path to HyNi came through muon-catalyzed fusion, then d-d cold fusion in metals, then learning about the Peter Davey claims of excess heat in ordinary water in the 1940's – followed by my own experiments using ordinary H2O.  My results are encouraging – along with those of MANY others now, world-wide.  Others have taken various paths, and several now use gas-loading of Hydrogen into nickel and other metals.
 
   It is basically a “race for humanity” at this time, to see who can achieve: 
1 – 100% reproducibility, each and every experiment.
2 – higher power yields, to make measurements more straightforward.
3 – still higher power yields, to make a useful device.
4 – release the inventions to benefit humanity.
It will be interesting to see which group in which country gets there first.  It might be that our community will "crack the code" for 100% reproducibility FIRST.  Groups in Italy and Japan are working on this. (Not so much in the USA for some reason.)

  We should consider the alternative approaches for loading hydrogen into metals, before diving in (IMO).  Some of these are:

1 - Electrolysis involving H2O, an approach which also allows for co-deposition of various metals (including lithium, one of my personal favorites) onto a metal cathode at the same time as hydrogen (protons) are introduced into the matrix.  I credit Peter Davey for pioneering in this particular approach in the 1940's - not Pons &Fleischmann who used H2O for control-experiments, and who came later anyway.

2 -  H2 gas-loading, with the metal heated in various ways including Joule-heating (E.g., Takhashi in Japan and Celani in Italy).

3-  Chemical decomposition of hydrogen-rich compounds into metals (E.g., Parkhomov)

4-  H+  ion bombardment at various beam energies, into various test-metals.  (I don't know of anyone using this approach at this time).


 I'm going to stick my neck out prognosticate that one of these approaches will succeed big-time in the next year or two.  The FIRST to achieve 100% reproducibility in anomalous hydrogen-metal reactions will greatly benefit humanity.   The lack of repeatability is the greatest bottleneck at the moment, as I seeend quote
----------------------------------------------------------------

just a reminder, a simple test protocol is being considered for experimenters here....will post when ready...
Chet

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: Hydrogen + metal = surprising reactions without plasmas
« Reply #2 on: November 22, 2018, 01:14:18 AM »
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