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Mechanical free energy devices => mechanic => Topic started by: Khwartz on July 24, 2015, 05:57:22 PM

Hello Guys!
I was following the experiments and ideas of Attila Blade with his teeter and sun flower "selfrunning" on heat energy at very low temperature difference.
https://youtu.be/8BF0UinTAxw (https://youtu.be/8BF0UinTAxw)
https://youtu.be/4ukwkiUOEs8?list=PLukR_iBSyGXRJNo3KgZIQqJrscjWxQ8G (https://youtu.be/4ukwkiUOEs8?list=PLukR_iBSyGXRJNo3KgZIQqJrscjWxQ8G)
Himself, find his inspiration in a "selfrunning" moisture wheel invented by one of his friend.
https://youtu.be/GcIeMWNlIGI?list=PLukR_iBSyGXRkd4KOSXuWMJL_fHvr3Y7A (https://youtu.be/GcIeMWNlIGI?list=PLukR_iBSyGXRkd4KOSXuWMJL_fHvr3Y7A)
I made some raw calculations and I get an order of magnitude of 10^5 W for his teeter, for a 10 cm² around area element.
I checked what we could have if implemented of a larger surface but even with 10 m², we would be still in the oom of 1 W.
Indeed, the change of shape are very slow, the mass involved is very little, and same for the length of the displacement.
Then came the idea of using ShapeMemory Alloy to do the same calculations, and what a difference:
 Speed of change from 10 to 100 faster,
 Mass involved from 10 to 100 heavier,
 Length of displacement for 10 to 100 too.
Thus, if we add these windows of improvement, we should expect between 1 000 to 1 000 000 more power for the same size (from 1 kW to 1MW).
But of course, if sunpowered, the power will not exceed the power we will focus on the mill, and for 10 m², if no solar concentrator, the maximum would be in the best conditions as day/night average value 200 W/m², thus 2 kW for 10 m². With wood of else, maybe more.
I do not have Nitinol or other SMA but I wanted to suggest my idea to those who would have some, and if I have messed up in my calculations, don't hesitate to correct me ;)
Here some suggestions:
1. If we use the cylinder sheet technique, with blades going in and out of the cylinder function of the heating, it could works much better the other way! ^_^ I mean when the sun heat, the blades go back in alignment with the average surface of he cylinder. Indeed, we could change the shape of the blade at cold temperature to pull it out and when heated, they just come back at their original location.
2. The width, longer and thickness of the blades should be adjusted to optimise their reactivity to the heat and cold, the simplest system wouldn't have even a liquid side cooling and just cooling by air.
3. I may be done with just stems for example just plugged in a cylinder wood, for cheap realisations :)
4. A solar concentrator, by lenses of reflectors, may be used to increase the power catching a larger area of sun rays reception to concentrate it in the exposed face of the mill.
5. A cover may be use too to only expose a precise width of the perimeter.
6. A more economical design could be to use indeed blades or stems, rods, wires, but to place masses of much cheaper materials at the extremity, to increase the ratio power available versus average price of materials used.
7. The direction way of the blades, rods, wires, may be significant to use the "kick" of the rotating blades, their momentum while they go back in place or when they take their radial direction.
8. A deflector may be used to guide the sun rays so they only come as per an ideal angle compare to the vertical axis of the mill, so that the changes of shapes of each of both configurations, only occur on one side for each. Let's say sun rays coming right, then blade would be only retracted (along the perimeter) on this side and on left side, only in radius direction ("perpendicular" to the perimeter).
It may be even need to expose the bottom surface of he cylinder so that when the cylinder turns, the blade will reach its austenite start and austenite finish temperatures (As and Af) near the bottom of the cylinder.
At the top, the symmetrical and opposite phenomenon would take place with martensite start en finish temperatures (Ms and Mf). (will try to load a new schematic for this configuration)

(y, y') is vertical axis
As, austenite start temperature
Ms, martensite start temperature
Green spots symbolise additional masses in cheaper but dense material.
The shift angle "alpha" is to help the rotation.
Some calculation for this example:
1. change of the distance of the centre of gravity of each halve of disc (maybe raw estimate because considered as homogeneous while it is far to be while mass is very in perimeter) :
I have chosen 12 arrays of blades but could be other number.
For here, the length of each blade is 1/12 of the perimeter of course.
Thus, the ratio between the radius difference and the initial radius before extension is:
"Delta r" / r = (perimeter / 12) / r = ((pi * 2 * r) / 12) / r = (2 * pi) / 12 = pi / 6.
Formula distance of a centre of gravity in a halve of disc:
d = (4 * r) / (3 * pi).
Thus, the ratio of the two distances "d" and "d' " of the two centres of gravity is:
d' / d = ((4 * r') / (3 * pi)) / ((4 * r) / (3 * pi)) = r' / r,
thus, the ratio of the two distances "d" and "d' " of the two centres of gravity is in the very same proportion than of the difference of radius.
2. Ratio of the torque of each halve:
Let's say
 each halve is of 1 kg.
 "d" is 1 m.
 gravity acceleration is 10 ms^2.
Torque in "d" is:
1 kg * 10 ms^2 * 1 m = 10 Nm.
Torque in "d' " is:
1 kg * 10 ms^2 * (1 m / (pi / 6)) = ((10 * 6) / pi) Nm =~ 19 Nm.
Thus the ratio is:
19 Nm / 10 Nm = 1.9.
PS: I am not at all familiar with these calculations but I think they should demonstrate a potentially in the use of SMA for a SunMill or even any other mill powered by any other source of heating and having its actuators SMA blades or rods, etc.

Note / classification:
I would qualify this kind of wheel a partial gravity unbalanced wheel by mean of SMA as actuators activated by average temperature difference; heating could be sun or else, and cooling natural or forced like with water or else.
What do you think? and would you have a try?

Set of NiTi wires orderred.

Little adding of the initial post (in red), to make it clearer:
"
I made some raw calculations and I get an order of magnitude of 10^5 W for his teeter, for a 10 cm² around area element.
I checked what we could have if implemented of a larger surface but even with 10 m², we would be still in the oom of 1 W.
Indeed, the change of shape are very slow, the mass involved is very little, and same for the length of the displacement.
Then came the idea of using ShapeMemory Alloy to do the same calculations, and what a difference:
 Speed of change from 10 to 100 faster,
 Mass involved from 10 to 100 heavier,
 Length of displacement for 10 to 100 too.
Thus, if we add these windows of improvement, we should expect between 1 000 to 1 000 000 more power for the same size of 10 m², corresponding to a cylinder of 10 m long and around 2 m of diameter (from 1 kW to 1MW).
"

Little adding of the second post (in red), to try to make it clearer:
"
Torque in "d' " is:
1 kg * 10 ms^2 * (d / (pi / 6))
1 kg * 10 ms^2 * (1 m / (pi / 6))
= ((10 * 6) / pi) Nm =~ 19 Nm.
"

NiTi not yet received! :'(

NiTiCu and Nitinol wires received.
NiTiCu is 0.12 mm diameter and Nitinol is 0.50 mm diameter.
Austenite Start temperatures are respectively around 55°C and 80°C.

Hi!
After many tries I can say that 0.12 looks useless: to thin too do anything with on a single wire basis, maybe braided or else but not sure.
For the 0.5, I could made some attempts to get "two way memory shapes"; means that after been heat above austenite temperature (the temperature where the shape corresponds to the denser state), when it cools it comes back at an initial shape, and that is what we want.
Indeed, we want that the "hairs" (if wires around the cylinder), go straight when heated and when they cool recover their initial plied or rolled shape.
I did succeed to make the nitinol 0.5 wire getting straight by just the heat of an incandescent light bulb (but anybody does this) but couldn't obtain more than few percents of selfreturn to the initial plied shape.
The problem is: "education"!
We are supposed to bring back at cold temperature "a sufficient number of times", the wire after having been straight. I've tried that but only helped with cold water for the cooling, I could get a more important selfreturn.
Thus, looks to me it is now a matter of having a Shape Memory Alloy allowing us a return to initial shape, and/or a better methodology to "train" the SMA to plie back after having been got straight by the heating phase.
Any help would be appreciated ! ^_^
And sorry, still not have found a way to upload pictures even if less than 5 MO :/
Regards.

Still only obtain very few return at home temperature when comes back to martensite (the cold state).
When plied to 90° the wire goes indeed straight (0°) but when it cools back by itself down to room temperature, it selfreturns only of 12° of shifting angle.
When cooled by cold water (maximum 10°C I think but of course near 0°C works perfect), we gain 23° more of returning shifting angle.
I have found 3 kinds of shape which might work.
. . . 1. The "O" one, the coil, like curly hairs, but I still need to check it with a larger halogen light so I can better simulate sun rays. Indeed, there is a problem when the coil develops: it should go only up and not touch the cylinder which happens only when only the upper side of the coil is heated but as my heating ray was too much focused I wasn't close enough simulating real situation to check if the development would be really fine and not contradicts with neighbour "hairs" or be stopped by the cylinder surface.
. . . 2. the "S" shape. The big advantage is that you're sure to not have the previous problem. Nevertheless, the difference of gravity centre distance with the cylinder surface looks to me less important (= less "travel" possibility for the wire for the same length of wire). An variant of the "S" shape would be the "8" shape, it is the same but we just "pile" the "S" side to side so they form a "8" and thus, this time, we have a very much closer to the cylinder surface, centre of gravity, like if the "O" shape.
. . . 3. The "L"shape. Just a 90°C angle which looks to have the great advantage on the two previous, to give a faster change shape when heated (the fastest and longest travel with most simple form). The problem with this one is that is we can't obtain apparently more than 23° of autoreturn shift angle, it is not very much travel, or we need longer "hairs" indeed so the gravity centre of the wire "travels" more. A variant would be only 20° of wire plying so it goes straight when goes to austenite temperature (the highest temperature changing shape).
I will publish the pictures or even maybe videos on my Google+ "Khwartz".
Regards,
Didier

BTW, an other very different conception I thought was a very "Unbalanced Gravity Wheel" kind.
Indeed, in an ordinary use, an "Unbalanced Gravity Wheel" needs the masses around it to overcome the waste of power due to the friction.
For example, when one of the mass comes to the apex, the top of the wheel, it often needs a kind of "kick" to change of side on the wheel.
Now, imagine that kick is now given by an SMA actuator/muscle (or even any other kind of changing shape actuator, like moisture or expansion ones), shouldn't the mass turns indeed the wheel after each kick made by heating the Nitinol or else, just when the mass needs its kick, so just before it arrives at the top of the wheel?
I will try to make a drawing of an example of how it could function; if I can upload it! ;D

For the "pure" SMA Mill (or wheel), I thought about using springs or other piece of SMA wire or else, to no more need a "training" of SMA for 2 ways memory shape; one would "work against" the other:
First the SMA wire or blade or else, is heated and for example straightening, then, when it is cooling, the spring or other piece of SMA or else but an elastic material, "recalls"/pulls back the SMA to its initial or curve or else, shape.
It could function BTW purely by expansion/dilation with no plying nor curving needed but pure straight wires or like.

Half a dozen of videos made and hope soon available on my YouTube channel (presently uploading but could take few hours), with a new idea of "Skin Spring Mill" but have troubles to upload them on my channel.
Nevertheless, would be far simpler, imho, if we could find a good enough SMA for training it in a "two ways shape memory" (recall of two different shapes : one hot, one cold), while no need of "pullback springs").
Is there anybody here who knows the perfect nitinol or else for that? :/

3 videos uploaded:
"SMA Sun Mill": Simple "hair" 2. https://youtu.be/JaNjgtB6hbU (https://youtu.be/JaNjgtB6hbU)
"SMA Sun Mill": Simple "hair" 2. https://youtu.be/TgxlnDYjU5Q (https://youtu.be/TgxlnDYjU5Q)
"SMA Sun Mill": "doublehair" 1. https://youtu.be/uea_bsfHnQM (https://youtu.be/uea_bsfHnQM)
Next "SMA Sun Mill": "doublehair" 2 and "Skin Springs" 1 and 2.

Video "SMA Sun Mill": "doublehair" 2 : https://youtu.be/uR7NGH9DRMw (https://youtu.be/uR7NGH9DRMw)

Call to help:
If anybody knows a good ShapeMemory Alloy, like Nitinol or else, with austenite start temperature at 90°C +/ 20°C (what ever value possible from 70 to 110°C), and martensite start temperature at 50°C +/ 10°C (what ever value possible from 40 to 60°C), with good ability to be trained to "two ways memory shape", please let me know, it would be far more efficient and simple, than these systems, to make "hairs" or "scales" (blades) for the "mill" or for any other system like "teeters" or else.

GEEE 201508151700 Our MSA Mill  Selfcooling by chemney convection

GEEE 201508151700 Our MSA Mill  Selfcooling by chemney convection
facinating idea there.
what if to re orient the turbine to be placed above rather than below?
that would result in what you see on rooftops that works rather well at less cost.
if you can't re orient placement of the turbine,
trying to think of things for this, mercury reacts to temperature changes, though is not solid enough like other temperature reactive metals such as the ones you described.
solenoid possible?
a vortex controlled heat transfer built into the exhaust system, used to focus the direction of thermal energy more concentrated towards
a diaphragm that moves a connecting rod to a rotor/wire coil.
to power mechanical actuators that could adjust position of the fins that are moved?
sorry for stepping away from the memory metal solution to your challenge with these ideas, a memory metal would seem a easier solution.
heres another interesting possibility for researching that might help the development of your idea.
Que’s device, called a CNFPZT Cantilever, consists of a “carbon nanotube film on a cantilever base of piezoelectric material.” When the carbon nanotube film absorbs thermal energy, such as heat and light from other devices, it forces the cantilever to bend. The cyclical bending then generates an electric current in the piezoelectric material.
According to a press release, “the device could generate enough power to adequately operate some lowpower microsensors and integrated sensors. One of the most unique and innovative aspects of this energy harvesting system is its ability to “selfreciprocate” – the perpetual production of energy without needing to consume other external energy sources.”
Piezoelectric energy harvesting is not new and has already been incorporated into a variety of applications, such as dance floors that power lights and other kinetic energy devices. However, this breakthrough tech transform how we use our everyday devices.
+ Louisiana Tech University
http://inhabitat.com/piezoelectricdeviceharvestswastedheatenergyfromtech/

Hello Guys!
I was following the experiments and ideas of Attila Blade with his teeter and sun flower "selfrunning" on heat energy at very low temperature difference.
https://youtu.be/8BF0UinTAxw (https://youtu.be/8BF0UinTAxw)
https://youtu.be/4ukwkiUOEs8?list=PLukR_iBSyGXRJNo3KgZIQqJrscjWxQ8G (https://youtu.be/4ukwkiUOEs8?list=PLukR_iBSyGXRJNo3KgZIQqJrscjWxQ8G)
there is some impressive studies presented there.
i probably should have scrolled back and seen that youtube you posted above before earlier on before commenting.
all the best

Hello Guys!
Having so much difficulties to find an appropriate SMA for my hopefully future "proof of concept video" of our "SMA Unbalanced Mill", I present former other ideas, the time I can have the correct materials to work with.
The idea of the "Dilatation Unbalanced Mill", is to use kind of "balloons" with appropriate gas inside which will push apart the masses to create the unbalance.
It is indeed very the same system than the "SMA Unbalanced Mill" but with the "balloons" (or any kind of expandable volume) as actuators.
Here is a raw schematic of en example of the idea:

facinating idea there.
Nice to know you enjoyed it ^_^
what if to re orient the turbine to be placed above rather than below?
that would result in what you see on rooftops that works rather well at less cost.
Sorry, didn't get what you talk about, maybe my bad English; could you develop or provide a schematic? please.
if you can't re orient placement of the turbine,
Sorry, but that's not a turbine, while a turbine works with a flow of something. It may be used too of course and combined with the basic principle of the wheel/cylinder/"mill", but in fact, the basic principle is:
THE CONTINUOUS ROTATING UNBALANCED SIDES RESPECT TO THE VERTICAL AXIS.
trying to think of things for this, mercury reacts to temperature changes, though is not solid enough like other temperature reactive metals such as the ones you described.
Maybe but what we are looking for here is, ideally:
TWO WAYS SHAPEMEMORY TRAINED MATERIAL (often metal, often alloy, often nitinol).
solenoid possible?
Have a look at my two videos about "Spring Skin SMA Mill" (something like that).
a vortex controlled heat transfer built into the exhaust system, used to focus the direction of thermal energy more concentrated towards
a diaphragm that moves a connecting rod to a rotor/wire coil.
to power mechanical actuators that could adjust position of the fins that are moved?
sorry for stepping away from the memory metal solution to your challenge with these ideas, a memory metal would seem a easier solution.
Sorry, looks I am too bad in English to clearly enough understand your proposal. Could you provide a schematic here too? please.
heres another interesting possibility for researching that might help the development of your idea.
Que’s device, called a CNFPZT Cantilever, consists of a “carbon nanotube film on a cantilever base of piezoelectric material.” When the carbon nanotube film absorbs thermal energy, such as heat and light from other devices, it forces the cantilever to bend. The cyclical bending then generates an electric current in the piezoelectric material.
Very interesting, it could allow to combine here both principles: a differential temperature gravitational one and a differential temperature electrical one...
According to a press release, “the device could generate enough power to adequately operate some lowpower microsensors and integrated sensors. One of the most unique and innovative aspects of this energy harvesting system is its ability to “selfreciprocate” – the perpetual production of energy without needing to consume other external energy sources.”
So Interesting indeed! thanks for sharing these data.
Piezoelectric energy harvesting is not new and has already been incorporated into a variety of applications, such as dance floors that power lights and other kinetic energy devices. However, this breakthrough tech transform how we use our everyday devices.
+ Louisiana Tech University
http://inhabitat.com/piezoelectricdeviceharvestswastedheatenergyfromtech/
I will study that!!! So Very Thanks, SoManyWires, for your Very Constructive input :) :) :) Nice to read you again! :)

Hello Guys!
I was following the experiments and ideas of Attila Blade with his teeter and sun flower "selfrunning" on heat energy at very low temperature difference.
https://youtu.be/8BF0UinTAxw (https://youtu.be/8BF0UinTAxw)
https://youtu.be/4ukwkiUOEs8?list=PLukR_iBSyGXRJNo3KgZIQqJrscjWxQ8G (https://youtu.be/4ukwkiUOEs8?list=PLukR_iBSyGXRJNo3KgZIQqJrscjWxQ8G)
there is some impressive studies presented there.
i probably should have scrolled back and seen that youtube you posted above before earlier on before commenting.
all the best
It's okay ;) and All The Best for you too! BTW, you brought me Truly Interesting Ideas 8)

SMA Mill  Hairs  Recalled  Gravity : + 2.5 cm
Using gravity to recall the SMA (nitinol) "hair", at the cooling phase.
+ 2.5 cm of radius increase for initial 12 cm radius = +20 %.
Note: the mass of the screw is far heavier than the nitinol wire.
https://youtu.be/_WLo_3jNkJI (https://youtu.be/_WLo_3jNkJI)

Nice to know you enjoyed it ^_^
Sorry, didn't get what you talk about, maybe my bad English; could you develop or provide a schematic? please.
oops, i did not notice you sent a message directed towards me.
what i meant was if you were to flip the drawing of the 'J' shaped tube, upsidedown, it seemed to me that could be similar to some attic venting systems as seen on roofs of houses.
i see a upsidedown 'J' shape in your drawing.
those types of attic vents usually have a convex shaped cap on top of it to keep out weather from getting in, and they spin from the heat created in the houses attic, as heat tries to find exit points, as the heat reaches the convex shaped cap, the heated air hits some angled fins that redirect airflow to outside of the house, to help cool the attic down. such as the roofing vent i am describing here.
a replacement idea for the angled fins on the cap, would be to put a axle inside the exhaust chamber, that has propeller type/windmill blades attached to the axle.
those blades would be able to turn the axle, and that could become recycled as stored electrical power to use later, or right away.
if those blades were strong enough, they could even withstand a small blast impact, and could have several sets of blades positioned further up inside the exhaust (firing chamber for a water based hydrogen ignition reaction perhaps).
and also it could be possible to use one axle per blade set, if the axles were positioned horizontally inside the chamber rather than vertically.
though the force hitting each blade set would decrease accordingly after the airflow passes the lower sets.
that might be able to recycle more of the force rather than just going with one set.
i am not sure what the application of your SunMill idea is for though, having a habit of missing a lot of sometimes key information myself.
you might not be wanting to use it connected to an attic heat source.
not knowing the application, what little insight i offered above might not be of any use to your project, though if of any use, great!
its not nitol based what i mentioned above, though it might be a solution or hopefully useful somehow.

SMA Mill / Hairs / Recalled / Gravity / Mass×2: +4 cm & Faster
Using gravity to recall the SMA (nitinol) "hair", at the cooling phase.
● Mass is doubled compare to last video:
Power been proportional to the mass, we have: M2[kg] / M1[kg] = 2, thus +100 % of increase of power transfer.
● + 4 cm of radius increase for initial 5 cm radius = +80 % (to compare to +20% in the previous video):
Power been proportional to the radius, we have: 1.80 / 1.2 = 1.50, thus +50 % of increase of power transfer.
● The change of shape is 50 % faster:
Power been proportional to the frequency (1/T), we have +50 % of increase of power transfer.
● The increases of of power transfer multiplying each other we get: 2.0 × 1.5 × 1.5 = 4.5, thus 350 % more power transfer (4.5 times more powerful under the same thermal power input).
Note: the masses of the screws are far heavier than the nitinol wire.
https://youtu.be/pHeMdsqgoMw (https://youtu.be/pHeMdsqgoMw)

SMA Mill / Hairs / Recalled / Gravity / Mass×4:+7 cm & Faster
Using gravity to recall the SMA (nitinol) "hair", at the cooling phase.
● Mass is near quadruple compare to 2 video before:
Power been proportional to the mass, we have: M3[kg] / M1[kg] = 4, thus +300 % of increase of power transfer.
● + 7 cm of radius increase for initial 1.5 cm radius: 7 [cm] / 1.5 [cm] = 4.6, thus + 360 % (to compare to +20% two videos before):
Power been proportional to the radius, we have: 4.6 / 1.2 = 3.8 , thus + 280 % of increase of power transfer.
● The change of shape is 2 times % faster:
Power been proportional to the frequency (1/T), we have +100 % of increase of power transfer.
● The increases of power transfer multiplying each other we get: 4.0 × 4.6 × 2 = 36, thus 3,500 % more power transfer (36 times more powerful under the same thermal power input).
■ Real mechanical power transferred (raw estimate):
Let's say screws are 10 g.
Power [W] = energy [J] / time
= (weight [N]. lift [m]) / time
= ((mass [kg] * gravitation [m.s^2]). lift [m]) / t
= ((0.010 [kg] * 10 [m.s^2]) * 0.10 [m]) / 10
= 0.001 [W]
■ Area of cylinder needed to obtain 1 kW:
○ nitinol wire diameter: 0.5 mm
○ area of the scare in which we inscribe the wire section at the "foot" of the "hair" (SMA wire): 0.5^2 = 0.25 mm2
○ number of hairs needed to obtain 1 kW:
• 1,000 W / 0.001 W/hair = 1,000,000 hairs.
○ 1,000,000 hairs × 0.25 mm2
= 250.000 mm2
= 25 m2.
Which would be still pretty much for an only 1 kW heat motor.
Note: the masses of the screws are 2 orders of magnitude heavier than the nitinol wire (in the range of an hundred times heavier, maybe 50 to 150 times more, should measure and calculate later).
https://youtu.be/EcI8OIyuoYc (https://youtu.be/EcI8OIyuoYc)

Hello SoManyWires! Thanks for your post and pictures, it helps me much to have them to understand what is written ^_^
I know these stuff.
Don't see for now how I could use it for my project but why not!
Oh, yes, it remembers me a configuration of solar dilatation mill, but the round shape looks to not be optimal in this kind of use, pure cylinder shape, and of course with axis horizontal, looks to me the best geometry.
The purpose of these "SMA mills" is just to make a heat motor to produce, hopefully, usable clean energy based, by use of the gravity while we unbalance continually the cylinder, by use of differential temperature to run the actuator (the parts which change of shape to move masses), by SMA to make the actuators working with the temperature differential.
Regards,
Didier.

SMA Mill / Hairs / Recalled / Gravity / Mass×4:+7 cm & Faster
Using gravity to recall the SMA (nitinol) "hair", at the cooling phase.
● Mass is near quadruple compare to 2 video before:
Power been proportional to the mass, we have: M3[kg] / M1[kg] = 4, thus +300 % of increase of power transfer.
● + 7 cm of radius increase for initial 1.5 cm radius: 7 [cm] / 1.5 [cm] = 4.6, thus + 360 % (to compare to +20% two videos before):
Power been proportional to the radius, we have: 4.6 / 1.2 = 3.8 , thus + 280 % of increase of power transfer.
● The change of shape is 2 times % faster:
Power been proportional to the frequency (1/T), we have +100 % of increase of power transfer.
● The increases of power transfer multiplying each other we get: 4.0 × 4.6 × 2 = 36, thus 3,500 % more power transfer (36 times more powerful under the same thermal power input).
■ Real mechanical power transferred (raw estimate):
Let's say screws are 10 g.
Power [W] = energy [J] / time
= (weight [N]. lift [m]) / time
= ((mass [kg] * gravitation [m.s^2]). lift [m]) / t
= ((0.010 [kg] * 10 [m.s^2]) * 0.10 [m]) / 10
= 0.001 [W]
■ Area of cylinder needed to obtain 1 kW:
○ nitinol wire diameter: 0.5 mm
○ area of the scare in which we inscribe the wire section at the "foot" of the "hair" (SMA wire): 0.5^2 = 0.25 mm2
○ number of hairs needed to obtain 1 kW:
• 1,000 W / 0.001 W/hair = 1,000,000 hairs.
○ 1,000,000 hairs × 0.25 mm2
= 250.000 mm2
= 25 m2.
Which would be still pretty much for an only 1 kW heat motor.
Note: the masses of the screws are 2 orders of magnitude heavier than the nitinol wire (in the range of an hundred times heavier, maybe 50 to 150 times more, should measure and calculate later).
https://youtu.be/EcI8OIyuoYc (https://youtu.be/EcI8OIyuoYc)
You may be shocked by the number of hairs, and ask yourself what would be the projected cost of the hairs for 1kW ?
With these numbers, but with industrial price, only nitinol, would be something like:
Total length of wire: 1,000,000 hairs * 0.1 m = 100,000 m
Section of wire: (0.0005 m / 2)^2 * Pi = 2*10^7 m²
Volume of wire: 100,000 m * 2*10^7 m² = 0.02 m3
Mass of wire: 0.020 m3 * 6,500 kg/m3 = 130 Kg
Investment in wire: 130 Kg * 200 $/kg = 26 000 $
But 1 kW solar panel is 20 $ from the same kind of sourcing ("made in China"), thus we are 3 orders of magnitude of cost to high.
We need to divide by 1 thousand the estimate of cost.
With global and hard heating on the full length of wire (it was only progressive along the hair so it took much more time to heat it all along), we may be possibly able to achieve:
SMA Mill / Hairs / Recalled / Gravity / 10 g:+7 cm & 1 s
■ Real mechanical power transferred (raw estimate):
Let's say a lifting mass is 10 g.
Power [W] = energy [J] / time
= (weight [N]. lift [m]) / time
= ((mass [kg] * gravitation [m.s^2]). lift [m]) / t
= ((0.010 [kg] * 10 [m.s^2]) * 0.10 [m]) / 1
= 0.01 [W]
■ Area of cylinder needed to obtain 1 kW:
○ nitinol wire diameter: 0.5 mm
○ area of the scare in which we inscribe the wire section at the "foot" of the "hair" (SMA wire): 0.5^2 = 0.25 mm2
○ number of hairs needed to obtain 1 kW:
• 1,000 W / 0.01 W/hair = 100,000 hairs.
○ 100,000 hairs × 0.25 mm2
= 25.000 mm2
= 2.5 m2.
But still 2 orders of magnitude to high...
To make it, we should have for example:
Power [W] = energy [J] / time = 1 kW
= (weight [N] * lift [m]) / time = 1 kW
= ((mass [kg] * gravitation [m.s^2]) * lift [m]) / t = 1,000 W
= ((100 [kg] * 10 [m.s^2]) * 1 [m]) / 1 = 1,000 W
How much mass of hairs we should need, if proportional to the mass lifted:
■ Mass of a hair?
○ Length of a hair: 0.1 m
○ Section of hair: (0.0005 m / 2)^2 * Pi = 2*10^7 m²
○ Volume of a hair: 0.1 m * 2*10^7 m² = 2*10^8 m3
○ Mass of a hair: 2*10^8 m3 * 6,500 kg/m3 = 1.3*10^4 Kg
○ Mass lift by a 10 cm hair: 10 g
○ Number of hairs needed: 100 kg / 0.01 kg = 10,000 hairs
○ Total mass of hairs: 10,000 hairs * 1.3*10^4 Kg = 1.3 Kg
○ Investment in wire: 1.3 Kg * 200 $/kg = 260 $
Maybe I have confused in my first calculations when I got 130 kg, between the total mass lifted and the total mass of hairs needed.
This later time I have taken in account the two different quantities but not the courage for now to check my previous calculations of total nitinol mass needed. If you want to check yourself and indicate the correction, don't hesitate, the publication of these calculations is made for.
We are still 1 order of magnitude too high in the best case, and with 20 $ for 1 kW solar panel China sourcing like for nitinol sourcing, looks to me it will be hard to be cheaper with this kind of system.
Didier

Hi All Of You (even if I don't know if anybody else than Peter  he will recognize himself ;)  follows this thread ^_^ )!
After many tries, many attempts, I didn't succeed to get a TWO WAYS MEMORYSHAPE EFFECT sufficient for our use with the nitinol wires I have received few weeks ago, only few percents of self returning to martensite shape when cooled.
I have asked estimates to suppliers in US and China of 1 kg of all kind of diameters of nitinol wires and thickness of nitinol sheets, with the martensite and austenite temperatures we are looking for (not 1050°C but 4070°C at least) but none of them sent me back a price.
Other problem: 1 kW photovoltaic solar panel, while sourced in China for example, is only 20 € (if I have not mistaken, of course, by hundreds of metersscare), while nitinol whith the very same sourcing is between 100 to 400 € a kilogram. By my raw calculations you should check their rightness by yourself, it would need kilograms to acheive this kW of power. Thus, it looks like
it is not economically relevant.
An other problem again: I think
that would be not an ecological apparatus
because of the very probable not clean industrial process to produce nitinol alloys (but should need to be checked if it's true).
Thus, that idea of SMA Unbalanced Mill,
unless we get SMA Alloys in the correct range of change temperatures shapes and ecological enough SMA alloys
looks to me a deadlock,
sorry, but thanks for your possible interest.
Regards,
Didier