Language: 
To browser these website, it's necessary to store cookies on your computer.
The cookies contain no personal information, they are required for program control.
  the storage of cookies while browsing this website, on Login and Register.

GDPR and DSGVO law

Storing Cookies (See : http://ec.europa.eu/ipg/basics/legal/cookies/index_en.htm ) help us to bring you our services at overunity.com . If you use this website and our services you declare yourself okay with using cookies .More Infos here:
https://overunity.com/5553/privacy-policy/
If you do not agree with storing cookies, please LEAVE this website now. From the 25th of May 2018, every existing user has to accept the GDPR agreement at first login. If a user is unwilling to accept the GDPR, he should email us and request to erase his account. Many thanks for your understanding.
Amazon Warehouse Deals ! Now even more Deep Discounts ! Check out these great prices on slightly used or just opened once only items.I always buy my gadgets via these great Warehouse deals ! Highly recommended ! Many thanks for supporting OverUnity.com this way.

User Menu

Tesla Paper

Free Energy Book

Get paid

Donations

Please Donate for the Forum.
Many thanks.
Regards, Stefan.(Admin)

A-Ads

Powerbox

Smartbox

3D Solar

3D Solar Panels

DC2DC converter

Micro JouleThief

FireMatch

FireMatch

CCKnife

CCKnife

CCTool

CCTool

Magpi Magazine

Magpi Magazine Free Rasberry Pi Magazine

Battery Recondition

Battery Recondition

Arduino

Ultracaps

YT Subscribe

Gravity Machines

Tesla-Ebook

Magnet Secrets

Lindemann Video

Navigation

Products

Products

WaterMotor kit

Statistics


  • *Total Posts: 517795
  • *Total Topics: 15435
  • *Online Today: 44
  • *Most Online: 103
(December 19, 2006, 11:27:19 PM)
  • *Users: 3
  • *Guests: 16
  • *Total: 19

Author Topic: MEMM  (Read 64903 times)

Offline PaulLowrance

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2483
    • Global Free Energy
Re: MEMM
« Reply #30 on: October 14, 2006, 08:44:53 PM »
It's always a question just how much time should be spent on documenting versus just working on the experiments, building, and research.  Lately due to my friends 20 year old prophesy I've spent a little more time on documenting. :-)  Here are more "free energy" details -->



First, a few prerequisites and definitions.

PM - short for Permanent Magnet.

Magnetic materials - Most magnetic materials are either ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic.  They both generate magnetic fields, but ferromagnetic is stronger than ferrimagnetic.  Ferrites are made with ferrimagnetic material. Pure iron, cobalt, nickel, etc. are ferromagnetic.

Electron orbital - The electrons are not particles, but really wave-particles. Even so, a lot of electrons do indeed have an equivalent orbital motion around the atoms nucleus. Simply stated, some electrons orbit the atom. Basically you can imagine this electron orbital as a coil of current.

Intrinsic electron spin - I'll abbreviate this as IES. If we zoom in a look at the electron we'll note there is an equivalent vortex of current. Basically speaking you can imagine the electron as a small coil with current. More precisely this imaginary current is spread out like a vortex.  Essentially, IES is similar to the electron orbital except the IES is far smaller and more intense.

Magnetic field caused by all ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic materials - The magnetic field caused by these materials mostly come from the IES, not electron orbital. I've read values of 80% IES.

Magnetic moment - This is a field caused by either IES or the electron orbital. If you have seen drawings of the Earths magnetic field then you know what the magnetic moment field looks like. See the attached image on this post.

MCE - This is the Magnetocaloric effect.

Eddy current - Please see the following web page -> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eddy_current

Electron flip - This is as described, the electron rotating 180 degrees and flipping. A great deal QM (Quantum Mechanic) physicists are under the impression the single electron does not rotate, but simply flips in an instant, in zero seconds. This is a false interpretation of QM. Experiments conducted by companies such as IBM have shown that the electron not only forces the entire atom to rotate, but it also forces the atom to precess as it flips / rotates. The actual electrons flip rate has been measured and it's typically a few nanoseconds, but can be significantly slower in electrically conductive magnetic materials.

Avalanches - This is an effect where a great deal of electrons flip. It is an avalanche effect where one electron will trigger another and so on until the avalanche dies out.

Applied field - This is simply a magnetic field that is applied to the magnetic material. This applied field can come from current in a coil or from PM's.

Magnetic energy - this is in reference to the energy associated with electron flips.


There are basically two main methods of extracting MCE energy. -->


Method #1 --- Using the Eddy currents as a tool

This is the method Naudin used in both of his designs. This method will not work on ferrite cores, as it requires the magnetic material to be electrically conductive at least on the micro scale. This is the easiest method.

Lets start from the beginning and with a very simple design. For simplicity lets use a design that does not have any PM's (Permanent Magnets) because PM designs introduce more complexity. We have a core with two coils-- coil #1 and #2. This design therefore requires a certain minimum amount of current running through the coil to make up for the lack of PM. Note that coil #2 is only for collecting energy. Our core is a toroid.

So current is flowing through the coil #1. The net magnetic field within the core is at level A. Now we want to increase coil #1's current as rapidly as possible. So coil #1 has increasing current and coil #2 is completely off. What happens is the IES's (Intrinsic Electron Spins) flip in avalanches. These avalanches are very slow because our magnetic core is electrically conductive. So there are avalanches igniting here and there. These avalanches cause Eddy currents, since our magnetic material is electrically conductive. So basically a great deal of the energy associated with the IES flip is given to the Eddy current.  We see within magnetic material there's a storm brewing as the applied field increases. As the applied field increases there are millions of nano size avalanches and Eddy currents. The avalanches generate energy, which Eddy currents collect. The Eddy currents have an RL decay period, once they reach peak, meaning the Eddy currents decay at a changing rate, simply stated.

At this moment our applied field is increasing, there are avalanches and Eddy currents. At the precise moment, and time is crucial, our coil #1 suddenly turns off and coil #2 turns on. A lot of electrons are still flipping and we already have a lot of energy built up in Eddy currents. We now have no current through coil #1. For simplicity coil #2 is connect to a resistor. So the resistor across coil #2 collects energy, which it dissipates in the form of heat. At some point the Eddy currents in totality will reach maximum and begin to fall. It is the job of coil #2 and its load (the resistor) to rob as much of this Eddy energy as possible.

Eventually the net magnetic field in the core will fall back to level A, as mentioned above, and the process repeats.



Method #2 --- The High Speed method

I'll document this method at a later time. Essentially this method requires non-electrical magnetic core such as ferrites. This method could possibly generate more power, but it requires extraordinarily high performing parts that can switch in roughly a nanosecond while allowing either high current or have high breakdown voltages.  As in method #1, the core is always partially magnetized.

This method does not rely on the micro eddy currents. Rather, at high speed the coil current must increase (switch completely on) faster than a fraction of one flip speed. Since the core is non-electrically conductive the electron flips will occur at high speed, typically in a few nanoseconds. It's the job of the coil to generate one coherent simultaneous avalanche pulse. When the electron flip process has reached a certain rotation (roughly 90 degrees rotation) then it is time to collect the energy. Remember, just as in method #1, the core starts at level A net magnetic field. So the core is partially magnetized from the start. It is this strong net magnetic field that provides so much energy when the electrons flip. The magnetic field caused by the coil is but a fraction of the field caused by the magnetic material. That is why one cubic inch of Metglas oscillating at 100 KHz generates 15 mega joules of energy exchanges in one second (15 megawatts) per Tesla.


Note that the effective permeability in method #1 would be relatively low (~5 to 100) as compared to method #2.


Kind regards,
Paul Lowrance
« Last Edit: October 17, 2006, 10:01:30 PM by PaulLowrance »

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: MEMM
« Reply #30 on: October 14, 2006, 08:44:53 PM »

Offline gyulasun

  • without_ads
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 4021
Re: MEMM
« Reply #31 on: October 15, 2006, 11:21:44 AM »
Hi Paul and All,

I have just seen a new price info on AMCC-320 Powerlite core at the /MEG_builders/ group from Andrew:

..."I got in contact with the company that supplies the core as specified
on the JLN Labs site and they said the core is $107 as a set.
Their website is http://www.elnamagnetics.com and it is a MetGlas
AMCC-320 Powerlite core." ...

I did not manage to visit the elnamagnetics.com page, it is down, probably for the weekend.

Another issue I would like to comment is the type of power MOSFETs you wish to use for switching, especially in case of Method #2.  Very fast switching-on will require a MOSFET able to survive several hundred (at least 600-700) Volts of back EMF from the coil and MOSFETs with such a high drain-source breakdown voltage are not cheap, especially with the simultanious need of the low rds.

One of the best firms on this field I know of is IXYS Corporation ( http://www.ixys.com/ )  and this link is their product family on MOSFETs: http://www.ixys.com/pfdmos01.html and Q2 Class HiperFET MOSFETs with Exceptionally Fast Switching category is a possible choice if a 25-30nsec on / off switching speed  is the goal in PRACTICE. This performance needs appropiate gate drivers too, see http://www.ixysgatedrivers.com/

(Let me notice I have no any relation/connection with IXYS Corp!, surely there are some others on this field.)

Regards
Gyula

Offline MeggerMan

  • TPU-Elite
  • Sr. Member
  • *******
  • Posts: 497
Re: MEMM
« Reply #32 on: October 15, 2006, 12:45:54 PM »
Hi Gyula,
I also tried the elnamagnetics.com website the other day and it worked, but now it appears to be down.
The google cached page still works but is of little use.

See this for MOSFET advice:
http://www.richieburnett.co.uk/mosfail.html

Its interesting about the gate current at high switching speeds being as high as an amp.
So the page recommends putting in your own back emf protection diodes (2 of them).
The bit about drive voltage is odd, I thought a mosfet gate voltage could not exceed 5volts let alone 10 - 15 volts.

Regards

Rob

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: MEMM
« Reply #32 on: October 15, 2006, 12:45:54 PM »
Sponsored links:




Offline PaulLowrance

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2483
    • Global Free Energy
Re: MEMM
« Reply #33 on: October 15, 2006, 05:10:13 PM »
mramos
100 KHz would a fine place to start. Although that frequency was used as an example to explain what is happening within the magnetic materials on the atomic scale.


Gyula
That's great news! Although their site being down is a prime example why a single source should not be relied upon when the "smoking gun" is released. The "smoking gun" will be easy to make and relatively inexpensive and highly effective in generating electricity, "free energy. "  Can you imagine the entire world trying to order a core from a single company, lol???

Method #2 requires extraordinarily high performance parts. Therefore I think Method #1 is the best starting point. BTW, the MEG uses Method #1.  Note that Method #1 as described in the wiki is simplified to describe what is happening within the magnetic materials. As stated, you can use a PM in Method #1.


Rob,
I'm curious, will you be using BUZ11 MOSFET's in your MEG replication?


Regards,
Paul Lowrance

Offline MeggerMan

  • TPU-Elite
  • Sr. Member
  • *******
  • Posts: 497
Re: MEMM
« Reply #34 on: October 15, 2006, 06:38:35 PM »
Hi Paul,
I have 3 x 2SK3594-01 MOSFETs rated at 200V and 30 Amps,on resistance 0.05R
Very good switching time. On + Rise time is 37ns and Off + fall is 70ns


I also have some 25 x IRFU3707 in I-PAK format.
These are rated at 30v and 60 Amps, on resistance 0.013R

On delay is 8.5ns and the rise time is 78ns, off delay 12ns and fall time 3.3ns.

I have picked these two for their switching speeds and on resistance.

The first set of MOSFETs I bought were to go with a 500Watt 0-55 0-55 v mains toroidal transformer for a variable output PSU, but should work well in the MEG circuit.  I am building a dual output 0 to 55V 4.5Amp PSU.
This is to charge the Joe Cell, I am also working on, to stage 3.
It needs about 100volts upwards to get a decent current to flow through the water.

Regards

Rob


Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: MEMM
« Reply #34 on: October 15, 2006, 06:38:35 PM »
Sponsored links:




Offline PaulLowrance

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2483
    • Global Free Energy
Re: MEMM
« Reply #35 on: October 15, 2006, 07:18:39 PM »
Rob,
I can't see why those mosfests would not work. They look good. I don't think the differences in capacitance will make noticeable difference.


Gyula,
You mentioned your replication of the MEG using ferrite core. According to MCE theory the MEG design will not work on most ferrite cores because most ferrites are not electrically conductive. The MEG uses Method #1.

Naudin made two designs, iron and metglas, which are both electrically conductive. IMHO it would be extremely difficult to get "free energy" with an iron core, but possible. I found errors in Naudin's scope interpretation. At least the scope pictures I analyzed show his iron core version did not produce more energy out than in, but it is very clear that according to his scope pictures his metglas version produced more out than in. IMHO there is no way to discount Naudin's scope pictures of the metglas version, unless Naudin outright falsified the pictures.  I've discussed this with other people in private regarding ultra high frequencies tricking the scope, the input source, etc. It's just not true and if anything Naudin's metglas produces more output than we can tell from his scope pictures.  Of course, this all presumes Naudin's scope is not faulty. :)

Regards,
Paul Lowrance

Offline MeggerMan

  • TPU-Elite
  • Sr. Member
  • *******
  • Posts: 497
Re: MEMM
« Reply #36 on: October 16, 2006, 11:09:59 PM »
Hi Paul, MrAmos,
I have ordered a AMCC-320 core from Elna Magnetics and should be with me by Thursday provided there is no hold up in customs.
I now need to look at building a pulse circuit.
Not sure wether to look at controlling it with a PIC or try the circuit that JLN used.

Ahh...I have just looked at the spec for the TL494C.
http://focus.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/tl494.pdf

250mA output drive current, much better than the PIC.
Also the output voltage is determined by the supply.
1 to 300Khz frequency range.
Built in oscillator stabiliser.

Yep, it has the the lot.
Its tried and tested by JLN, so why re-invent the wheel.
I think I will invest in a 30v 5amp bench power supply too, more toys to play with ;o)

Regards

Rob

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: MEMM
« Reply #36 on: October 16, 2006, 11:09:59 PM »
Sponsored links:




Offline PaulLowrance

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2483
    • Global Free Energy
Re: MEMM
« Reply #37 on: October 17, 2006, 01:03:13 AM »
Hi,

That's really great news kingrs!  How much was the AMCC-320 core?

Hopefully by tomorrow I'll be testing a silicon iron transformer under exceptionally small power conditions. Unless I'm incorrectly simulating this in my mind I'm guesstimating that a few microwatts should reach the level where even a standard silicon iron core could reach the "free energy" state. I know, whoopee, a whole microwatt, lol. :)  There might be a whole lot of other forces involved at such microwatts, but we'll see.

Unless I made some errors the theory shows how efficiency is relative to the reciprocal of power.  In other words, less power equates to more efficiency. Of course that is not considering the inefficiencies of the circuit and presumes the magnetizing field is always at optimum.

This seems to match Naudin's results, but it is not so evident -->

http://jnaudin.free.fr/images/meg21iof.gif

Notice the output (red line) exponentially increases up to 25 volts, but then drastically decreases. Then look at the input as it continuously increases with its exponential rate. Understandably there are a lot of factors involved, but we cannot ignore the fact that Naudin's power chart shows the input power approaching the output if we follow the pattern. I did not enter these graphs in a spline function, but I would guesstimate the two merge at roughly 75 to 100 volts input.

I know everyone wants to pump a ton of power in their core so they can get a lot out, but please consider lowering the input voltages as low as your circuit will efficiently tolerate. Another way of achieving less input power is to increase the amount of turns on the input coil, up to certain point of course depending on frequency-- you probably don't want significant reflecting waves.

Similarly, 10 small cores should be more effective than 1 large core.

In a nutshell, as you double to input voltages you are essentially doubling the coils current, unless your circuit is not linear. That quadruples the input power. Although, by doubling the current your are doubling di/dt, which simply stated will merely double the MCE energy. So you are quadrupling the input power, but you are only doubling the available MCE energy.

Regards,
Paul Lowrance

Offline MeggerMan

  • TPU-Elite
  • Sr. Member
  • *******
  • Posts: 497
Re: MEMM
« Reply #38 on: October 17, 2006, 10:19:18 AM »
Hi Paul,
From Elna Magnetics the AMCC-320 core costs $107 + $64 shipping to UK, plus $3 handling.
The shipping is FedEx, but I guess if I ordered a few cores the cost per core would be a lot less. Shipping within the US will be a lot less.
The AMCC-500 core costs $140.

I did not ask about the AMCC-1000 (7Kg lump) but if the AMCC-320 works out, that will be my next order.

MrAmos, 1 hour to design and etch a PCB, now that is fast.
I have all the gear to design, UV process, etch and drill but it will take a couple of evenings to do one design.
Are you going to get an AMCC-320 core?

I will knock up a design on Eagle (free to use on small 4" x 4" or less boards) if anyone is interested.

Regards

Rob

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: MEMM
« Reply #38 on: October 17, 2006, 10:19:18 AM »
3D Solar Panels

Offline MeggerMan

  • TPU-Elite
  • Sr. Member
  • *******
  • Posts: 497
Re: MEMM
« Reply #39 on: October 17, 2006, 01:33:21 PM »
I made my UV box from an old flatbed scanner that I could not longer use because the scsi card was ISA.
Put two UV tubes into the bottom, wired this to a guts out of a new 12v caravan light.
I use pre-coated laminates from MegaUK (http://www.megauk.com)

I time it on a stop watch and manually turn it off.
The tubes need to warm up a bit, so manual control is fine for this.

I have etched double sided panel PCB antennas using this and they are perfect.

Do you iron the toner onto the board from a transfer sheet?
My mate does this, but I prefer the UV method.
Where abouts are you based?

Regards

Rob

Offline PaulLowrance

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2483
    • Global Free Energy
Re: MEMM
« Reply #40 on: October 17, 2006, 09:59:46 PM »
Hi,
I read the messages in this forum and then tried to reply, but everything went dead. Found out that my system suddenly got 9 viruses, lol. Anyhow, everything's reinstalled and back online, finally. :-)

You guys are beyond me in electronics. For now I just use a breadboard, sort of like plug and pray.  Looking forward to seeing kingrs results. I'm still designing the circuit for the 1 uW iron transformer. This is turning out to be real fun.

mramos,

I understand, getting a car for your oldest has high priority. If you have some silicon iron U-cores around then perhaps you could replicate Naudin's iron version. I'm predicting that _if_ the input power could be lowered to a few microwatts that you could create a self-running machine. Efficiently working with a few microwatts could be tricky. I believe you can actually see a lit microwatt LED in complete darkness. Just need to allow your eyes to adjust. Hey, it will be the first freely published self-running machine, lol. From that point there's no place to go but up and next thing you know you'll be in the kilowatts. :)


Regards,
Paul Lowrance

Free Energy | searching for free energy and discussing free energy

Re: MEMM
« Reply #40 on: October 17, 2006, 09:59:46 PM »
3D Solar Panels

Offline MeggerMan

  • TPU-Elite
  • Sr. Member
  • *******
  • Posts: 497
Re: MEMM
« Reply #41 on: October 18, 2006, 12:46:13 AM »
Hi Paul,
I was wondering why you were quite.

Status:
I have ordered up a 30v 2.5A  variable bench power supply to feed the pulse circuit.
I plan to drive the pulse circuit from 12V and the MOSFETS from the variable supply up to 25V.
This way I can prevent damage to the gate of the MOSFET and keep the chip consumption out of the power input equation, albiet, a small power draw.

My AMCC-320 core has been dispatched now.
I need to order some TL494CN chips and some heavy duty resistors, I think I have most of the other components.
Started on the PCB design for the circuit using Eagle, not sure about the placement of the MOSFETS though.

Hi MrAmos,

I used to have a panasonic KXP4420 laser, a few years back, cost me a small fortune 600GBP ($1000).
Now I have a cheap Samsung ML1510.
Works very well.

Regards

Rob



Offline PaulLowrance

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2483
    • Global Free Energy
Re: MEMM
« Reply #42 on: October 18, 2006, 01:12:25 AM »
kingrs,

That's much better than the power supply I yanked from an old PC. It gives 30A @ 5V and 15A at 12V. It's not very good for noise and stability. They must use cheap regulators or something. When I need to keep the noise down I use batteries and various size caps across the source.

Paul Lowrance

Offline PaulLowrance

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2483
    • Global Free Energy
Re: MEMM
« Reply #43 on: October 18, 2006, 03:26:40 AM »
Hi,

Someone from the MEG_Builder group asked me some questions. I thought it might help people to better understand the MCE process of collecting electrical energy. -->

-----------
There are several methods. Method #1 is the easiest. Normally MCE (magnetocaloric effect) heats up, cools down, etc. In electrical conductors such as iron and Metglas a lot of the MCE energy goes to micro eddy current bursts. Normally the eddy currents dissipate all the energy in the form of heat. If you pulse the core at the correct speed you will get a _coherent_ avalanche pulse. IOW, the avalanches are occurring at roughly the same time. You'll get eddy currents. When the Eddy currents reach peak then your receiving coil will attempt to rob as much energy from the Eddy currents. You do this by placing a load across the coil.

Picture a nano size group of atoms that flip. There are many factors that determine the flip rate such as magnetic field strength, but free electrons plays a huge role. The free electrons act as inductance, resist the flipping magnetic moments. (You can see this effect by dropping a neo magnet down a hollow Al tube.) This gives a micro eddy burst. So you could say its like a microscopic coil around the avalanche, which is a good thing so as to collect a high percentage of the MCE energy.

Under normal conditions you have millions of micro eddy currents that are simultaneously increasing and decreasing all over the place within the core. In other words, the bursts are not coherent. Micro eddy bursts do not last very long, which is why you need to pulse the core fast enough and then quickly absorb some energy from the eddy currents. Although, when the eddy currents occur at the same time then the bursts decay at a much slower rate, which is a good thing.

Where the energy comes from is fascinating. Without ambient temperature (vibrating atoms) magnetic material would align (saturate) and that's the end of the story. Even when you remove the applied field the core would remain magnetized. It is vibrating atoms that give low coercivity. So when you remove the applied field it is the atoms that _force_ the magnetic moments to break alignment with the net magnetic field. That requires energy, which is exactly why magnetic materials cool down when the applied field is removed. That is where MCE energy comes from. Even the NASA guy who contacted me agreed.


Trying to compute the energy relative to the field strength is perhaps not the correct method. Consider two PM's each on swivels, so they can rotate. The PM's are rotated so they repel each other. The magnetic fields cancel each other, so the net magnetic field is relatively low, just within close proximity of each PM. Now allow the PM's to quickly rotate so they align. You get energy _plus_ you get a net magnetic field, lol. Magnetic moments also rotate as IBM's experiments revealed. Normally this flip/rotation rate takes a few nanoseconds, but in electrically conductive materials such as iron and metglas it takes many microseconds.
-----------


Regards,
Paul Lowrance

Offline PaulLowrance

  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 2483
    • Global Free Energy
Re: MEMM
« Reply #44 on: October 18, 2006, 08:09:32 PM »
Hi mramos,

I know what you mean, as I am fairly certain I saw your post. It seems to be gone.

I'm in Los Angeles County, CA., USA.  I am still waiting for Metglas to ship me a small 2714AF core, but still no shipment. For now I am working on a cheap silicon iron core, ~half inch in diameter.

If you would like, you could wait to see kingrs results. Although on a personal level I am very confident that kingrs will succeed, but what if he does not? I don't see any reason for more than one person replicating the same experiment unless such a person can easily afford the costs. Hopefully kingrs will receive a _real_ metglas core.

The reason I am experimenting with silicon iron core, beside the fact my Metglas did not arrive as scheduled Oct. 17th, is that I am testing a theory that less power equates to higher efficiencies. As admitted this particular theory of power-vs.-efficiency is not set in stone, as it's merely a somewhat complex simulation done in my mind. It's a little complex so I could have easily made a mistake. Better to allow the computer to accurately reveal the results or just do the experiment, lol.

One thing that does not entirely make sense is Naudin's efficiency dropped like a rock toward 10 volt input. Of course his chip has a _minimum_ source voltage spec of 7 volts. I am wondering if Naudin fine-tuned his circuit for 10 volts to see the maximum efficiency. It sure would be nice to converse with Naudin!!!

Regards,
Paul Lowrance

 

OneLink