2nd "law" violations > Heat to electric energy conversion

LENR Roundup

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fritz:
Dear All,

Due to the actual hype on LENR and related technologies in this area, I´d like to start a thread analyzing the situation and discussing setups for replications.

Somehow I have the feeling that quite a few 2nd order violations or similar might be based on effects covered by LENR.

Let´s start with some analysis on Rossi´s work.

He harvests some exothermal effect emitted by a capsule filled with nickel and some secret stuff.
Additional he adds hydrogen or uses material which releases hydrogen.

To start this exothermal effect, he needs some initial energy which is fed by means of a resistive heating element. On exceeding this initial temperature, he gets an increasing cop which even enables "self sustained mode".

I would interpret that as that he can turn off the resistive element.

In his test setups, the typical approach is to derive the released energy by the amount of water converted to steam. So its obvious that the initial temperature involved is above water boiling point.

The effect somehow looks to be of the "avalanche" type - so after exceeding certain temperature - a steady increase in released energy is obvious.
Interesting that he explains the test-run of his 1MW plant limited to just 500kW because of "self sustaining mode".

It might be quite difficult to control that effect.
A serious point might be the thermal capacity of the setup.
By having a steady flow of medium he can increase that thermal capacity.
If the reactor starts to exceed the  rated performance he can cool it down by increasing the flow of the medium.

As long as he is controlling the effect by means of resistive pre-heating with reasonable but lower cop - it might be easier to control the effect.
If he wants to go self-sustained - the only way to control it would be the amount of energy transfered by the medium.
So this would mean that  he would need more flow control and more efficient heat exchangers to control such device self-sustained.

What do you think ?

rgds.

fritz:
LENR and Keely

Maybe a correlation of LENR and Keely might sound not too obvious...
Rossi claims to use some sort of rf which helps to break down coulomb barrier;
other claimed to use sonic waves (sono-luminescence)
Later Keely theories claimed that almost any matter can be manipulated by means of acoustic waves.

Looking at his machines, Keely had definitely some metallurgical background.
Maybe he stumbled on some kind of transmutations doing his experiments and founded his theory on these effects.

teslaalset:

--- Quote from: fritz on February 13, 2012, 09:22:12 PM ---The effect somehow looks to be of the "avalanche" type - so after exceeding certain temperature - a steady increase in released energy is obvious.
Interesting that he explains the test-run of his 1MW plant limited to just 500kW because of "self sustaining mode".

It might be quite difficult to control that effect.
A serious point might be the thermal capacity of the setup.
By having a steady flow of medium he can increase that thermal capacity.
If the reactor starts to exceed the  rated performance he can cool it down by increasing the flow of the medium.

As long as he is controlling the effect by means of resistive pre-heating with reasonable but lower cop - it might be easier to control the effect.
If he wants to go self-sustained - the only way to control it would be the amount of energy transfered by the medium.
So this would mean that  he would need more flow control and more efficient heat exchangers to control such device self-sustained.

What do you think ?

--- End quote ---

In my view the thermal effect is definitely an avalanche type.
This means that to control the process and avoid melting of the Ni powder a few options are to be considered:

1) Selfsustaining: the thermal capacity of a complete system is such that during too high heat production the cooling of the core is increased by increasing the (re)circulation of the cooling water, e.g. by increasing the pump rpm. This should be done such that the temperature of the core does not decrease too much as this will shut down the heat production process. Disadvantage of this option is that in case of a power failure, the core will melt due to a lack of cooling.

2) Heat biasing: A permanent electrical heating is present (by an electrical powered heating element) during heat generation of the actual LENR process. As soon as the temperature of the core get too hot the bias heating is reduced. If temperature drops too low, bias heating is increased (also used for starting up the process). This allows simple control and easy shut down of the system: simply shut down the heat biasing. It seems that the Hyperion of Defkalion uses a pulsed modulated biasing method.
When designed with adequate dimensions, this method allows a LENR process that can prevent a core melt down in case of a power failure.

In my view, for safety and robustness reasons, Rossi uses option 2).
Disadvantage is that there is a permanent electrical power required to keep the ecats running and this lowers the COP.
Rossi indicates that the home ecats have a COP>6, hinting at using permanent electrical energy to control the ecats.

fritz:

--- Quote from: teslaalset on February 13, 2012, 10:01:35 PM ---In my view, for safety and robustness reasons, Rossi uses option 2).
Disadvantage is that there is a permanent electrical power required to keep the ecats running and this lowers the COP.
Rossi indicates that the home ecats have a COP>6, hinting at using permanent electrical energy to control the ecats.

--- End quote ---

It would be interesting if its even possible to harvest that effect with pretty low thermal capacity and pulsed inductive or rf heating.
Those "avalanche type" effects in combination with high thermal capacity are not too fun to experiment with.

Another open point for me is if the heat is transfered from the heated powder - or if the heated powder radiates somewhat secondary into the enclosure....

rgds.

profitis:
Definitely uni-directional a)biased micro and macro cyclic gas flow currents going on inside powders at incredible speeds and b)uni-directional biased transfers of heat going on from ambient aswell as heating element

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