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Author Topic: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2  (Read 1051930 times)

Online Bruce_TPU

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Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« on: May 04, 2007, 03:29:55 AM »
First let me say that I deleted my old posts, because I did want more time to research and to be able to take the concept in my thoughts and make it clearly understood.  I mis worded some thoughts, etc. because of a lack of electronics background.  But as I once stated, some with no electronics background can contribute.  At least on this thread.  I also would like to say that this is MY hypothesis.  To be proven true or false.

I desire to run some things by you and to see what you think.  I have continued researching and have attempted to get inside of SM's head to try to solve this riddle.

I see there are 5 major parts to understanding the TPU.
1.  The controller
2.  The collector (three of them)
3.  Control wire #1 (one wrapped around each collector)
4.  Control wire #2 (one wrapped around all three collectors and core)

I have come to the conclusion based on SM statements and continued research, that the TPU "function" is similar to a vacuum tube rectifier.  He said that is what gave him the initial idea and I think that the function can be explained that way.  He was (is) a tube guy.  Most of the electronic guys today are not and are not interested in studying the tube clues, and thus missed the function.  Now, follow my line of thinking for a moment.

What does the collector collect?
Electrons - Negative charged

How does the collector collect electrons?
I believe through two ways.
1)  Cold cathode - I believe SM ran a "small" amount of AC voltage in the TPU collectors (I am not sure how this would be done) to initiate or act as a "catalyst" for the accumulating of the electrons.  Two of the engineering reports verify that there was a small amount of AC current in the TPU.  Also several of SM's clues. (Yes, the TPU puts out DC voltage)

2)  Sound Frequency AMPLIFIED with either a tube circuit (for experimenting) or MOSFET.  I have clarified my understanding of this process much.  High Frequency has the ability to go through solid objects.  The interaction of those frequencies do not "meet" at the end, as I first thought, but ?meet? all along the entire diameter of the collector.  This in turn causes an accumulation of electrons on the surface of the collector wires.  These are charged negative, and sit their like small little magnets.

OR:
I was thinking a lot today about my theory, and still think it is correct, but I am starting to think a little bit different about the "how".  I am starting to think that perhaps the Frequencies are input into the control wires wrapped perpendicular around the collector.  The collector would act as the "positive plate" picking up the electrons.  The collector would be 'heated' by AC to prepare it for the electrons and to act as catalyst.
There are a few reasons I am starting to think this way.

SM said, quoting Tesla and giving us clues, "This kick came out of the wires perpendicularly"
"His goals were to get the time in which the discharge (our case sound frequency)  is STOPPED to be much quicker.  As Tesla did this he found that the perpendicular radiations, the ones from the wires, caused electrical effects to appear in wires and other copper/metal materials (the collectors?) near the STOPPED current/discharge  (The control wires).  These electrical effects could be made to create electrons on other wires (on the collector?) and copper around his STOPPED current/discharge wire "(the control wire wrapped around the collector.)

"The CONTROL frequencies are important in order to make power from the collector."

Perhaps he calls them control wires because the Frequencies are input into them and each segment ends (Stopped).  In my coil anyway.  I will experiment both ways.

What does the control wire #1 control? 
The electrons within the collector
Just maybe the Control frequency is input into the three segment of the control wires, and not into the collectors, or perhaps both.

How does the control wire accomplish this?
The control wire acts as a control grid in a tube (Cathode).   It has negative charged electrons on its surface and like charges repel.  Because this control wire is wrapped tightly (no gaps) perpendicular to the collector wires, the electrons deposited in the collector can not escape and are "trapped, caged, etc."  SM said the "kicks" (access electrons) escape perpendicular of the wire.  Control wire #1 is either not wired to anything (my first thought) or is negative charged (ground). Control wire #2 is larger, and a continuation of control (the trapping of electrons) and in similar manner is either not connected to anything or wired to ground.  I am not sure which.

The magnet acts as a "plate-anode" of the tube.  In a tube the Hot cathode filament heats up releasing electrons in a vacuum.  The control grid is cathode and acts to repel the electrons back towards the hot cathode.  Once the positive plates attraction overcomes the negative repulsion of the control grid, there is an electron stream in the vacuum that travels from the hot (or cold) cathode to the positive plate and out come the electrons.

The TPU's collector is equivalent to the hot (cold) cathode of the tube.  (Actually I have been rethinking this and perhaps the collector is equivalent to the positive plate that catches the electrons in a tube.  But the collector is catching electrons deposited on it?s surface from the clash of the frequencies at ?fast send off? through the three control wire segments)  I will be experimenting both ways.

Control wires #1 & #2 are equivalent to the control grid of the tube.
The magnet acts as a "positive" plate.  He snaps it onto a metal piece which then is magnetized.  All of the electrons in the collector are "attracted" magnetically and come rushing out (voltage) When the magnet is removed, they stand still in the collector again, and no voltage.  If SM wanted, he could operate the TPU without the magnet, by just putting a dc positive charge through the collector.  The results are the same. 

Now, about the collectors.  There are three of them.  In one, goes the amplified sound freq. (just one end)  I do not know if clockwise (my first guess) or counter clockwise, (running in the same wire is small current AC).  (I am also rethinking this and perhaps no frequency goes into the collectors, just into the control coils.)

In the second collector goes the "harmonic" of the first frequency.  The harmonic is the first frequency exactly doubled.  Same direction I would guess. (running in the same wire is small current AC).

In the third collector goes either the first frequency again, or a third harmonic (second harmonic doubled - I believe.  Need more research on this.)

I have nearly finished wrapping my first TPU. A 6" small one.  I am going to start experimenting, as soon as I get, beg or borrow equipment.

All of the above is a result of SM's clues and endless hours of researching  his clues.  I especially like the one where he says, "The device is based on a simple electronic concept." 

Here is to my happy experiments to come! 

Thank you for your time,
Best regards,
Bruce

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Offline devilzangel

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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #1 on: May 05, 2007, 07:26:04 AM »
 :D .. kewl .. keep us updated

devilzangel
..

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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #2 on: May 06, 2007, 05:18:52 AM »
I found this old post and it describes exactly what I believe the small amount of AC being put into the TPU was for.  He has worded it very well. Still thinking about the differant ways I wish to experiment doing this.

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Re: Capture Radiant Energy via Coils
? Reply #4 on: January 21, 2007, 12:58:50 PM ?
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The operation of the device would be a small battery to start a control circuit which creates the short pulse and radiant effect, and then an oscillation which creates usable electricity.

Quote from SM
"The only part he doesn't have any idea about is that by starting the oscillation you cause the current to flow in the collector which causes the magnification of the process within the collector which will ultimately produce the greater voltage and power in usable amounts during operation."

(I will try to pulse AC low voltage to act as "catalyst" for the oscillation process of the frequencies within the collectors.) 

I have decided to use tube circuits for my experiments.  I think I have found a tube person to help me with this. 

Otto thinks that the collectors tie into the control wires.  I will be trying it every way possible.  Perhaps I will even try pulsing the AC into the control wires as the freq. plays in the collectors.

Here is to my happy experiments!
Bruce


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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #3 on: May 12, 2007, 05:53:49 PM »
Experiment Notes:  My TPU vibrates and oscillates

I input primary frequency (tried both 2500 hz and 10k hz) into the top and bottom collectors traveling counter clockwise.

I input secondary (harmonic) frequency (5000 hz and 20K) into the middle collector traveling clockwise.

The collector wires, opposite from the inputs were all connected, then this was connected in series with brown control wires (see photo in first post) then brown control wires were connected in series with green control wire (see photo in first post)

I then ran AC 12 volt 60hz transformed into the coil (no diodes like I should have) (see rough schematic) .
After, as I neared with my hand, to place the magnet onto the top of the coil, the magnet began to vibrate very much in my hand.  After putting on the magnet, I held the back of the coil and could feel tremendous vibration and oscillation.  As I went to put the second harmonic of 20k hz  through a slider on my laptop, my transformer blew and smoked a great deal on the secondary side.  To be honest it was all quite unnerving...LOL  It is strange to pick up a wired item (the TPU) and to feel what I felt.  It did not just vibrate, but felt like mini marbles traveling around it.  It was very strange.  I had no bulb hooked to it for I did not have my frequency amplified beside the capability of the laptop.

I had that whole mad scientist feeling....minus the scientist part!! LOL

It was very exciting. :)    ???

Thank you for your time,
Bruce

Offline hartiberlin

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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #4 on: May 12, 2007, 07:29:57 PM »
Hi Bruce, did it also vibrate without the magnet ?
Too bad, that your transformer smoked.
I hope you can repair it.
Please update us on any new discoveries !
Many thanks.

Regards, Stefan.

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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #4 on: May 12, 2007, 07:29:57 PM »
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Offline Motorcoach1

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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #5 on: May 12, 2007, 08:03:56 PM »
@ Bruce very interesting about your theory.    now i figured that SM did have some small amount of AC in the coil. now this is a puzzle to me , if the right frequencies are met you can amplify the 60 Hz chroma and get output from the TPU. look where he was when he did this experiment. and the he had a hard time getting it to work when he moved. Yes it worked when he drove around town as he stated and his associates. taping the chroma is old news ( I'm not at this statement being negative) but theres a fine line in this setup as being a transceiver. as Nokia Tesla did in his Duel cone experiments in a broad band receiver and yes is worked better that he figured.  i feel induceing the chroma effect and increase that mass to a level that it can be used. and yes if the 60 Hz grid can be taped thats all good. but the power guys might get T'ed of hahahahah mmmmmm acustic power  thanks for reading this ....Mike 

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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #6 on: May 12, 2007, 11:43:53 PM »
For a number of reasons, I think that SM inverted a very small amount of AC from a small DC battery.  When I first turned on the AC, I was reading 1.5 volts ac from my voltmeter, and I do not begin to understand the vibrations.  I was inputing a miniscule amount of power, no high voltage.

When the magnet vibrated in my hand, it was kinda disconcerting...LOL.  Not feeling the magnet repel or attract, simply vibrate.  I can not remember if the TPU was vibrating before I put the magnet on, it was 2:30am...sorry.  Replacing the transformer is easy, I have more.  I just am thinking about where to go from here.  I do not think there is enough amplification of the frequency from my laptop to produce power, but then again, why did my trans blow.?!

I will try again soon, but I think with two diodes in place where the ac enters the coil. 
Any ideas on keeping my transformer from frying would be a help..:)

My motto has always been to keep it simple.  I don't have to know why it works, I just want to figure out how it works, going at things from more of a detective/experimenter kind of way.  I will leave the why theorys to smarter people than I.  Any person wanting to can easily replicate the vibrating coil with the info I have given..I think.  Just without the whole smoking (and it was smoking bad) transformer and shaking hands! LOL

Thank you for reading,
Bruce

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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #6 on: May 12, 2007, 11:43:53 PM »
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Offline innovation_station

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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #7 on: May 13, 2007, 06:08:41 AM »
hello bruce

i think that the output of the top and bottom collector and control will give you ac as output from a dc input and if you inject that ac back into the coil you could eleminite your extra ac in put source and not need the transformer that you are smokeing up

is

Offline hartiberlin

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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #8 on: May 13, 2007, 06:52:34 AM »
Hi Bruce,
whatis the DC resistance of the coils that you put onto
the 12 Volts AC output of the transformer ?

If it is only 1 to 2 or under 10 Ohms, you probably
pulled too much current and thus the transformer was just "shorted out"
and thus got too hot and smoked up !

So maybe you pulled via the transformer already 20 or more Watts
into the TPU and thus it is no wonder, that your magnet
vibrated a lot !

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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #9 on: May 13, 2007, 07:02:32 AM »
Hi Stephan,
I have the wires disconnected but will do a check of resistance when I get a chance in a day or two.  Just a note, though, the transformer is a small radio shack typed rated at 1 amp.  I measured the voltage before the vibrations at the output of my coil and it was 1.5 volts.  I would have had to be drawing 13.34 amps to total 20 watts, and there is no way.  The max amperage I have been able to pass through this transformer at any given time with my HHO experiments is 4 amps at 2.5 volts for 10 watts.  It is rated for 12 watts.  I do not think I "generated power" through the TPU but neither do I believe the explanation of that causing, not just the magnet in my hand, but once I placed it on the coil and grabbed the coil from behind and held it, I can not describe the feeling.  It was vibrations, yes, but like little marbles rolling around the equator of the coil.




NOW THE KICKER...to top a great weekend.

I believe I have found the "MISSING CLUE" tonight as to what goes into the third collector.  It is NOT what we/I thought.

Here is the clue, see if you can figure it out before I tell you.

SM says,
"I prefer using triodes because they generate less distortion. ANY DEVIATION FROM THE ORIGINAL SIGNAL OR ADDITION TO, HARMONIC AND INTERMODULATION is not good for stereo enjoyment, you know.  Stereo?  I have a THREE CHANNEL SYSTEM I listen to.  Sometimes the channels COMBINE together to create the most magnificent sound you could imagine.  A whole new sound stage opens up and suddenly you are transformed to someplace else."

Elsewhere he says, "...in the first frequency, in the second harmonic, and then THE THIRD."

I thought the third was was another harmonic of the second, or the first frequency twice.  NOPE.  He TOLD US what goes in the third collector:

INTERMODULATION

Yep, I had to look it up to be sure.  Google: define intermodulation

And if I read the math that applies to this, (someone good in math please verify the formula, I do not want to lead anyone wrong with a fault formula)
There are differant formulas, the the one that I think fits this is as follows:

First collector - Frequency
Second Colletor - Harmonic
Third collector - Intermodulation=Frequency + Harmonic

Example: (Frequency is differant based on diameter of TPU)
Frequency is 35.705 K hz
Harmonic is 71.41 k hz
Intermodulation is 107.115 K hz


This would create the worst possible example of pure frequencies.  Reread SM's posts about clashing transformers, etc.  You will start to understand. 

Jubilant,
Bruce
« Last Edit: May 13, 2007, 07:23:23 AM by btentzer »

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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #9 on: May 13, 2007, 07:02:32 AM »
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Offline z_p_e

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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #10 on: May 13, 2007, 04:06:33 PM »
Actually, intermodulation yields sum and difference frequencies, so yes the third harmonic will be present if the fundamental and second harmonic are mixed together.

Mixing involves multiplying the two frequencies together, and to accomplish this, the two frequencies must simultaneously enter a non-linear medium where the mixing occurs, and byproducts result.

The simplest non-linear mixer I believe is a diode. Apparently, there are passive intermodulation methods, but they involve dissimilar metals and high frequencies and voltages, which certainly may be present in the TPU.

Darren

Offline Peterae

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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #11 on: May 13, 2007, 05:14:59 PM »
This is quiet interesting, in the large TPU you can see 2 sets of electronics, you would expect to see 3 sets if he used 3 independant frequencys and generators,I came to the conclusion that he either was only using 2 in the large TPU or the third was constructed from the first 2 frequencys in some way.
So Darren what you are saying is connect 2 diodes together at the Cathode and on each seperate anode push the 2 sepaerate frequencys, so ineffect adding these together to form the third.

Peter

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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #12 on: May 14, 2007, 04:52:44 AM »
Darren,

A great help!!  Simple, just combine the frequencies at the EXACT same time to form a brand new frequency in the third collector, the Intermodulation.  This will go on my tube circuit "to do list". Much easier and fits the videos and clues perfectly. Thanks!

Bruce

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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #13 on: May 14, 2007, 09:47:04 PM »
Okay, latest experiment.

Another AC tranformer, smaller than the last one.
Rating 12vac 500ma

Output voltage reading of just the transformer = 14.13 volts
At first I connected a diode to each leg of the ac and input the same locations as last time, and there was no output reading of ac from the tpu.

Next I removed the diodes, but hoping I would not smoke another transformer.

output from the TPU reads .423 volts ac

I place an amp meter on a leg of ac being input from the transformer.

I place the transformer about 4 feet from the TPU.

I have an "inline" switch near the tpu to as as a on and off switch for the ac current.

I hook up the same frequencies as before in the same way.

I turn on the ac, then left channel and then right channel frequency.

Amp meter reads = 2.06 amps
volts taken at the output of the transformer, before it hits the tpu = 1.72 volts ac
Volts reading at the output of the tpu = .423 volts ac

The magnet vibrates, ONLY when the edge is near or on the top of the unit.  Also, when it is in the center of the unit.  N down, nothing, S side down, nothing.

Slight inertia can be felt...not nearly as much as the last experiment with a larger transformers.  Also the unit vibrates slightly.

DC output reads 1.2 mv.  I turn the ac on off switch and every time I do there is a spike of DC voltage.  Sometimes 11.3 mv sometimes 10.5 mv, etc.  Always a differant amount.

I check the output of the trans and tpu at ac voltage and turn the switch on and off, and there is no kick or spike or anything..... hmmm.

SM made SEVERAL referances to AC and DC flowing in opposite directions in the same line.  Why AC?  The only thing I can find or think of is it alternates the poles of the "electromagnet" that we have created around the collectors, every half cycle.  DC keeps the North and South in the same direction the entire time.  Hmmm....

Thank you for your time,
Bruce

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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #14 on: May 15, 2007, 01:03:00 AM »
Another major clue uncovered.  This is another huge one!
This will tell us how to find the individual resonance frequency for differant diameter TPU's.

First SM's words:

"Hey, did you know that the frequency is proportional to the speaker's circumference?  It appears that the frequency should change with the circumference of the speaker.  That makes sense to you does it?  No one I have talked to realizes that yet.  I use 15" speakers myself.  They are 15" from the dead center of the outside flange to the other sides flange."

"The frequencies are directly related to the circumference of the collector coil."

Funny thing I realized today...each collector coil really is a type of speaker (except with out the vibration paper)  And you know what, I think when SM said speaker, he meant "speaker" in the whole tpu sense.  And you know what...a resonant frequency is determined by diameter!!!  Remember SM mentioned 35k resonance, he said he "left the resonance there." 

The resonant frequency which is our first frequency is determined by the diameter of the speaker and a few other things as well.  I found the info below with full instructions and calculator.  If you find a better way of determining the resonant frequency or better calculator, please post.  Look at the similarities between the collectors and speakers...it is amazing!  Perhaps this will help me understand the whole ac part as well!  My, my, my...

Jubilant,
Bruce

http://www.bcae1.com/spboxad3.htm
Full calculator and how to determine the resonant frequency!!

This procedure is copied from link above:
Calculator in link above to enter the information!

Measuring speaker parameters
The following will lead you through the test procedure needed to find some of the T/S parameters of your speaker.
You'll need:
?  a 4-8 ohm resistor rated at 5 watts or higher
?  An amplifier which has a flat frequency response from 20-100hz
?  A sine wave generator with frequency counter or an external frequency counter.
?  A test enclosure with a known internal volume
?  A digital multi-meter. A true RMS meter will be the most accurate.
?  Disregard the readings on the test equipment in the diagram. They ain't right!
Set your meter to ohms and measure the DC resistance of the speaker and the resistor. Enter these values in fields '1' and '2'.
Make the connections as shown below and set the generator's frequency to somewhere between 40 and 100 hz. Set the generator's output so that the amplifier produces approximately 3 volts AC. Enter the exact output voltage in field '3'. Do not change the output level for the rest of the testing. To mute the audio, turn the amplifier off.
 
________________________________________
Now make the connections as shown below. Adjust the frequency of the generator until you get the lowest possible voltage reading across the resistor. This is the resonant frequency of the speaker. The reason that the voltage is lowest at this point is because the impedance of the speaker is at its highest. When the speaker's impedance increases, the current flow decreases. Since there is less current flowing through the resistor, there is a smaller voltage drop across the resistor. Enter the minimum obtainable voltage into field 5 below. Enter the frequency where the minimum voltage was obtained into field 4. Click on 'calculate'. Don't be concerned by the erroneous values in some of the fields. We're only half way through the test.
 
Adjust the frequency of the generator down until the voltage across the resistor is the same as the field marked 'Resistor's 3dB Down Voltage'. Enter the frequency into field 7. Now go up in frequency past the resonant frequency to the point where the voltage is again the same as 'Resistor's 3dB Down Voltage'. Enter this value into field 6.
________________________________________
Measure and enter the internal volume of the enclosure into field 9. Mount the speaker in or on the enclosure. If you mount it 'in' the enclosure, subtract the appropriate amount from the enclosure's volume (see table below). Find the resonant frequency of the speaker in the enclosure by finding the frequency where the voltage across the resistor is lowest. Enter this value into field 8. Click on 'calculate' again. If the speaker's calculated resonant frequency is significantly different from the value that you measured earlier, you may not have been careful enough in your measurments. The values output by this calculator should be very close to the published specifications for the driver.
 


Notes:
There are several things that will change some of the parameters of the speaker. None of the following will make a huge difference in the resonant frequency (except, maybe, #1) but they will make a difference. If you can not get consistent measurements, some of the following may be the cause.
1.   Physical relationship to objects around the speaker.
When measuring the resonant frequency of a speaker, you must make sure that nothing is reacting with the speaker except free air. Most people hang the speaker from a string when finding the resonant frequency. The speaker should not be hanging near any other objects. If it's hanging within ~12" from any object, the object may affect the measured resonant frequency. You can confirm that this is true by placing your hand in front of the speaker when reading the voltage across the resistor. Moving your hand closer to the speaker will change the voltage reading across the resistor. If you measure the resonant frequency with the speaker laying on its magnet, you'll get slightly skewed readings. If the magnet has a vented pole piece, the readings will be even more skewed. For an 8" woofer that I was testing, the difference between the free air resonance and resonance with the speaker within 1" of a wall, was about 2.5%. This isn't a big difference but I'm mentioning it so that you'll realize that little things can cause variations in your measurements.
2.   Temperature:
Most speaker components are, at least, somewhat sensitive to temperature. This is especially true for the spider and the surround. At very low temperatures, they will be less compliant (which will give a higher resonant frequency). At higher temperatures, the spider and surround will be more compliant and will produce a lower resonant frequency. For critical measurements, you should measure the resonant frequency at the same temperature as the environment where the speaker will be used. For home speakers, this is easy. For car speakers, the wide temperature variations make it more difficult to pick a temperature at which to test.
3.   Humidity:
Some speakers (especially those with untreated paper cones) will absorb moisture and will therefore have a slightly different resonant frequency when the air is very humid or very dry.
4.   'Breaking in' the Speakers:
'Some' speakers need to be played a while before they obtain a stable compliance. Fresh out of the box, the suspension may be somewhat stiff (mainly due to the material that's used for the spider). After playing them a while, the suspension will soften a little. If you want to break them in, play them at a very low frequency (preferably at resonance) for 10 minutes or so. Drive them with enough power to move the cones about 2/3 of Xmax. With the speakers hanging in free air and at resonance, there will be virtually no chance of injuring the speakers. Remember, at resonance, the speaker moves significantly with very little power applied. The combination of very high impedance and significant cone movement virtually eliminates any chance of overheating the voice coil. This should not be done with the speakers in an enclosure, lying face down or on their magnets (especially if they have a vented pole piece).
5.   Test Equipment:
Professional quality test equipment won't be affected much by temperature. That said, it's best if you allow the test equipment to reach 'room temperature' if you want reliable measurements. If your meter was in the trunk of your car baking in the hot sun and you make the measurements as soon as you bring it in to the test area, you may get significantly different readings than you will when the meter cools down. The same goes for the signal generator/frequency counter.
6.   Meter Frequency Response:
Before you get started, you should connect your meter directly across the signal generator and check to see that the voltage doesn't vary as you sweep the frequency from ~20hz to ~100hz. If the voltage starts to drop near 20 hz, you may want to find a true RMS meter to do the tests.
For the most accurate measurements, I would hang the speaker in the middle of a room in your home (or temperature controlled shop). This will provide a stable, consistent environment for your tests. Allow all test equipment and speakers to reach room temperature before testing. To get consistent measurements, you need to have consistent test conditions.
As a side note, Someone once told me that hanging the speaker can cause the measured resonant frequency to be off because the magnet/frame structure moves a little. They said that the speaker had to be mounted securely into an infinite baffle to give accurate measurements. I can not deny or confirm this statement.
« Last Edit: May 15, 2007, 03:45:05 AM by btentzer »

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Re: Bruce's TPU Theory and Experiments ver.1.2
« Reply #14 on: May 15, 2007, 01:03:00 AM »

 

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