Hi ag89,

Thank you for the lecture on scalar waves. I do have some comments

I thought the laws of electromagnetism **are **the equations. So I don't see why particular solutions should be considered as non-electromagnetic, even when the fields "simultaneously" null. The facts that the fields null does not mean that the quanta, the virtual particles of space, are absent, it is just that their measurable effects cancel. And using the term "measurable" brings into focus your use of the word "simultaneously". That infers an instant in time but we know that as we look at smaller and smaller time intervals, although on average the field quanta null, their presence in terms of individual number or amplitude density do not.In your opinion, others have a different view.Now you have wandered into what actually comprises the vacuum medium and whether or not it can be stressed.That is an over-simplification.Now you have assumed that there is a current flow, which demands that there be something present to create that flow, indeed your negative resistance effect implies a voltage hence an E field. If there is some directional force on your conduction positrons, then by definition there is an E field present, and that will create the same direction of **current** as for conduction electrons, so no negative resistance effects.

But there will be no electric **current**, no effective charge movement. So you can't call it a superconducting current.No comment.Now you have wandered away from the quantum world and IMO opinion that is a mistake. The dynamical vacuum does not behave like a compressible fluid.I have no argument with that, but I fail to see the connection with your imaginary vacuum fluid.

Smudge

Hi Smudge,

Here are my answers to your questions.

The Maxwell equations deal with classical (non relativistic, non quantum) macroscopic E-field and B-Fields.

The measured current and voltage in a circuit are time-averaged values, so noise effects caused by quantum and thermic fluctuations have not to be taken into account.

When E-field and B-field are simultaneously null at a point of space, the electromagnetic density of energy at that point is also null.

So the scalar waves do not involve electromagnetic energy but another form of energy coming from the outer medium.

When dealing matter-radiation interaction from a quantum point of view, E-field and B-Field are of no use, only electrostatic and vector potential matter.

The mainstream physics interpretes the magnetic and electric Aharonov-Bohm effects as quantum-level interactions between the electrons and the electromagnetic potentials.

There is another interpretation that consider that the Aharonov-Bohm magnetic experiment can be explained by the interaction of the electrons moving B-Field with the static solenoid B-Field.

IMO, the magnetic flux lines density increase when passing through a magnet, applies a stress to the vacuum, which is compressed in the process.

I agree, my definition of electric resistance was over-simplified: conduction electrons interact with the lattice metal ions and the topological or chemical defects present in the metallic material, causing radiation resistance losses and Joule effect heating.

We must go beyond the classical electromagnetic vision (voltage, E-Field...) to consider matter and energy transfer from a general point of view: whenever a matter or energy density difference is created between two regions of space (gradient), a current flowing from the higher energy (or matter) density region to the lower energy density (or matter) appears to restore the equilibrium.

We have to abandon the classical electromagnetic view of matter as particles interacting with E-field and B-Field and consider, instead, propagating wave functions interacting with potentials, from the quantum electrodynamical point of view.

The electron-positron super-current must not be considered as the simple superposition of a matter and antimatter flows (that would annihilate instantaneously), but as a mixed entangled quantum state, behaving like a bosonic field (permitting the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates), composed of two correlated wave functions travelling in phase.

A pure positronic current cannot exist because it would immediately annihilate when put in contact with ordinary matter.

Quantum decoherence effects are of prime importance for the propagation of waves over long distances (comparatively with atomic distances) in a material.

If these effects occur, the charge-carrying propagating waves loses their coherence (they are submitted to random dephasages) and the associated current is destroyed.

Why the vacuum could not be modeled as a compressible fluid?

This model has the advantage to only allow waves to propagate with a finite velocity in the vacuum medium (as sound waves in air), thus rejecting "action at a distance" concept which, IMO, is a complete physical non sense.

In 1903, Whittaker has showed that if a particle emits spherical (retarded) waves (time-dependent) in all frequencies, propagating with the same velocity, a coulombian-type potential (independent of time) is created.

If we consider that material particles as continuously coupled with the vacuum and in stationary equilibrium with it, the particle receiving energy from the vacuum

and radiating all this energy, Whittaker's approach takes all its physical sense.

The connection with the vacuum fluid model is of the utmost importance to explain how vacuum fluctuations could cohere and be stabilized to be usable.

Vacuum compression effect is what makes this possible.

The Heisenberg principle of uncertainty permits virtual matter-antimatter particle pairs (vacum fluctuations) to exist only during a very short time but not to interact each other or with particles matter.

Sufficient distance reduction between them, by medium compression action, might allow to these interactions to occur.

For example, below Fermi level electrons might gain kinetic energy by collisions with vacuum fluctuation and be promoted to the metal conduction band.

But such processes imply that system entropy can be reducted, by transitions from chaotic to ordered states.

One could argue that such transitions violate the second law of thermodynamics.

But, it is not the case here, because this law, that states that the entropy of a physical system must always increase with time, only applies to systems at equilibrium state (the systems we study are open quantum out of equilibrium systems).

Antigrav89