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Author Topic: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!  (Read 49804 times)

Online MileHigh

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #45 on: January 17, 2013, 02:52:03 PM »
For starters, the simple model for this is a voltage source in series with two resistors.  The first resistance is the internal resistance of the battery and the second resistance is the wire.  The total resistance is low, so that means a lot of power is being dissipated.  Of the two resistors, the higher-valued resistor will dissipate more power than the lower-valued resistor.  I am assuming right now that the internal resistance of the battery is the higher-valued resistor but that would have to be double-checked.

If you were looking at the voltage across the battery it would drop considerably.  I am going to guess about 0.3 volts due to the shorting wire.  You measure the voltage across the wire/battery to determine the current.

Then the wire itself is like a small furnace with constant heat production.  The wire heats up to the point where the heat production is in balance with the heat dissipation.  If the balance point temperature is too high then the wire will melt.

Naturally the high current through the wire and the battery creates a strong magnetic field for a single wire.  However, since there is only one loop, not that strong as compared to a multi-turn coil.  You might be able to feel the magnetic field with a magnet in your hand.

The inductance of the single-wire plus battery current loop is very small but with the high current for a while you are storing a small amount of energy in the magnetic field created by the current loop.

MileHigh

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #45 on: January 17, 2013, 02:52:03 PM »

Dave45

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #46 on: January 18, 2013, 03:12:38 AM »
The wire heats from the center out, where amperage and voltage meet, if electrons only moved in one direction the wire would start heating at one end and move around the wire.


Dave45

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #47 on: January 18, 2013, 03:53:52 AM »
Wind your wire into a coil and do the same test.

Offline Qwert

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #48 on: January 18, 2013, 03:56:25 AM »
The wire heats from the center out, where amperage and voltage meet, if electrons only moved in one direction the wire would start heating at one end and move around the wire.

"Where amperage and voltage meet" ??? ? What are you talking about? Do you understand, what are you talking about? ??? ?? Amperage and voltage don't meet , but we also can't say that they go together. See http://amasci.com/elect/vwatt1.html


Offline onthecuttingedge2005

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #49 on: January 18, 2013, 05:10:24 AM »
an idea is not a theory, only when it has mathematical proof is when it's theoretical, only after testing and re-testing does it become a theory.

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #49 on: January 18, 2013, 05:10:24 AM »
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Online wattsup

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #50 on: January 18, 2013, 06:45:26 AM »
@MH

Yes, that's one of the ways to see this and I thank you for your input. I am not saying that anyone is right or wrong because in a learning process, both are welcome.

So.... let's look at some visual evidence of what happened when the battery was shorted.

I made six image grabs of Test 1 shown below. Hope they turned out in the right order. hehehe

Let's let the wire tell the story of what is going on when it is hit rather hard with DC.

When you look at these images and compare these to the standard EE theory of electricity "traveling" from one polarity to the other, we run into problems.

When we measure the voltage across a battery, we see a + to - voltage of 12 volts. So we say one polarity is at zero volts the another is at 12 volts. So when we short the battery, one side of the wire will receive zero volts while the other side receives 12 volts.

But if this was true, then how is it possible that this potential difference produces a symmetric distribution of energy dissipation on the wire. This goes counter to what would be expected if the battery energy was unidirectional.

The visual evidence indicates that the energy is "leaving" the battery from both terminals equally. Both sides enter the wire and meet at the wire center point. It's as if the battery is really 6 volts on the + and 6 volts on the - and when you put your volt meter across the battery you still read 12 volts.

When a generator rotor is turning and the stator has let's say three coils that each go all the way around, what happens? Each of the three coils is always receiving a north and a south impress from the rotor magnets. Both rotor polarities are producing the total of the potential difference at all times over the coils. So why would it be any different with a battery shorted by a wire. The battery is the rotor, instead of spinning a magnet the battery is spinning a chemical reaction. The wire is the generator stator and the wire is getting hit by both polarities at the same time.

If you take a dual channel scope and a 7ah 12vdc battery and put the probe positive of each on one of the battery terminals, with volts div at 10mV each and a time div at 20mS, what do you see and why?

@onthecuttingedge2005

I'll work on the theoretical side and you can work on the mathematical side and we can see where we meet. Seems to me that you still need a theory before you can work out the math.

wattsup


Offline TinselKoala

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #51 on: January 18, 2013, 08:46:19 AM »
Nice work, Watts. I am especially happy that you caught the instant of wire failure.

I've done a lot of work exploding fine wires by discharging HV caps into them. I use my Bonetti machine to charge up some Maxwell pulse caps to 60 kV or so, then discharge them by an overvolting air gap through enough inductance to make a critically damped discharge (so it's not AC, just all the energy is dumped in a single DC pulse). Here's what the result looks like. The copper is vaporised and ejected, always on the outside of the curve of the wire, and sometimes the enamel insulation is left behind almost intact. The copper blasts out of tiny holes or splits in the enamel tube. This was #36 enamelled magnet wire.
I also did some with very fine aluminum strips... and got extremely violent explosions, much more so than with copper at the same energies.

Two mysteries: the copper vaporizes or liquefies and is ejected always on the outside of any curvature in the wire, and the fragile insulation often survives relatively intact, with only tiny holes or splits.

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #51 on: January 18, 2013, 08:46:19 AM »
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Online wattsup

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #52 on: January 18, 2013, 03:35:11 PM »
@TK

Thanks for your images. Yes a HV discharge is another effect that we know little of. At HV discharge the advancing of energy from both polarities into the wire is so quick that you would require very fast video capability to then see the occurrence progress frame by frame to see exactly what is going on.

We would have looked at this effect later on but the question remains....

How is is possible for electricity to enter the wire and travel through the wire at such a high speed to then cause copper atoms to be ejected in an almost perfect perpendicular angle? Regular EE theory does not explain this well.

The only analog I can think of is David and Goliath. David puts a rock in his sling and starts turning the sling faster and faster until he releases the rock that exits perpendicular to his sling and hits Goliath in the forehead. This event may be true or not but the sling would be the analog to fast spinning of copper atoms. So fast that the centrifugal force surpasses the copper bond and copper atoms get ejected perpendicular to the wire.

How can you physically eject something perpendicular with enough force if you are only moving forward. In billiards, if the white ball just barely skins the black ball, the black ball will move almost perpendicular to the white ball direction but the force of the black ball will be minimal. To achieve a strong perpendicular exiting of an object you need to have it spinning on an axis then released. The atom itself has its own axis of spin and some relative distance and with enough speed will break its bond and could only then depart from the mass perpendicular.

In your first image we see that the ejections are not in one or two concentrated locations but throughout the wire length. It is impossible to consider this being caused by a forward movement. It can only be explained by what I have coined as "Spin Conveyance". At HV, the spin is exerted throughout the wire instantly. Again we are not supposed to be this far ahead on the subject but it does not hurt to dabble in it.

These effects may seem rather mundane or unimportant, but they are really very important because they are at the base of our EE theorizing, on which everything else takes its starting perspective. Again, regardless of the true effect logic, this does not change anything in standard EE as far as measurements and formulas go. But it will at least give a more mentally acceptable visualization of our everyday EE effects.

What I am trying to do is go inside the wire, inside the battery, inside the capacitor or coil to better understand what makes them tick and bring this logic to the forefront. Only then will we be able to see the potential methods of OU.

But there is so much more to cover.

wattsup

Online MileHigh

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #53 on: January 18, 2013, 03:54:07 PM »
Wattsup:

It's more like all of the atoms in the wire are just sitting there and then the voltage is applied and all of a sudden the atoms are in a "raging wind" of electrons.  It happens throughout the wire simultaneously.  Or if you want to split hairs, the electric field propagates at the speed of light so it takes a few nanoseconds.  Then it takes a short time for the voltage to overcome the inductance of the wire and induce the current flow.

So on the wire scale the wire heats up, and for TK's case the wire heats up instantly and then starts to boil.  The heat causes expansion and gives the molten and boiling metal outward velocity.  Since you are on a long wire, the mass is expelled outward radially.  It's just a quick energy conversion that's taking place when the wire flashes:  electrical -> heat -> motion.

It's all quite straightforward.  I don't see any surprises.  The issue for you is visualizing the start of the current flow. The current moves everywhere at the same time; through the entire volume of the battery and through the wire.  A very fast power burn takes place, so fast in TK's case that it would be better described as an energy impulse.  So if the energy impulse is very large and very short in duration, you get a massive generation of heat energy in a very short time.  The heat has nowhere to go at first, so the wire has to shoot up in temperature until it pops and the circuit is broken.  It's basically an electrical firecracker and heat is the root cause of the metal spraying out radially.

Also, in TK's case, the metal wire heats up and starts to vaporize so quickly that the enamel coating doesn't even have time to heat up.  So the enamel coating is still quite strong overall for a very short amount of time, such that the pressure from the molten wire pokes holes in it and a lot of the molten and vaporized metal escapes that way.

MileHigh

Dave45

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #54 on: January 18, 2013, 07:15:34 PM »
"Where amperage and voltage meet" ??? ? What are you talking about? Do you understand, what are you talking about? ??? ?? Amperage and voltage don't meet , but we also can't say that they go together. See http://amasci.com/elect/vwatt1.html
Yea my terminology was wrong, thanks for the link.

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #54 on: January 18, 2013, 07:15:34 PM »
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Dave45

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #55 on: January 20, 2013, 06:48:47 PM »

Online MileHigh

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #56 on: January 22, 2013, 06:28:09 AM »
Wattsup:

I am just going to add a few final comments here and then leave you to your thread.  I read what you said at the beginning of the thread and I know that these explorations will take your own path.

Quoting you:

Quote
The visual evidence indicates that the energy is "leaving" the battery from both terminals equally.

There are a lot of comments in a similar vein over your past few postings.  It seems you have this visualization of power "leaving" from a battery terminal.  Your visualization is really wrong and let me try to help you.  If there is no "uptake" on your part that's fine, this is your thread and I won't be hanging around.

Think of pumping up a tire of a racing bike.  The PSI in the tire is quite high, and at the end you really have to pump hard to get a small amount of air into the tire.  That short time when you are actually pumping the small amount of air is like the battery discharging high voltage across a high-value resistor.  Alternatively, it would look exactly the same to the battery if it was charging a capacitor where the voltage in the capacitor is very high.  The latter is actually the better analogy to the tire.

Think about this:  When you are pumping the tire up you are acting like the battery pushing current through a resistor or charging a capacitor.  You as the pumper don't care what the load is, all that you know is that you are outputting power into a load.

In that sense, there is no power "leaving a terminal and traveling outwards" from the battery.  That's a wrong way of thinking about it.  Instead, all that the battery "knows" is that it maintaining a certain voltage across two terminals and pushing current through those terminals into the outside world.   The outside world could be anything, the battery doesn't care.

The battery just outputs power across it's two terminals, point finale.  Can you visualize that?

Now, let's briefly look at the load, which is a wire in these cases.  Power is not "flowing into the load from the positive terminal of the battery" like you seem to be visualizing.

Imagine we slice the wire into 1000 little disks, each one connected to the other.  Think of a roll of coins.   Each one of those little disks is just sitting there minding it's own business.  Each little disk has its associated resistance.  When the current starts to flow it means that each little disk starts to get hot.   Each little disk has no clue and doesn't care where the power source came from.  All that each little disk knows is that it has just become a small furnace because it is now dissipating power.  The source of the power happens to be the battery, but the disks don't care.  All the disks know is that they are going to heat up.  The little disks are converting electrical power into thermal energy.  In other words, when you look at small slices of time, each slice is power x time = energy.  So each tiny little disk is like a thermal energy producer, as you step through time.  Each disk is like a small furnace, a heat factory.

That's kind of what's going on.  The battery knows nothing, all that it knows is that it has been tasked to output electrical power.   Likewise, the disks know nothing.  They just happen to find themselves acting like little heat factories, and for every small step in time, the little heat factories have put out more total accumulated energy.

The important point being, there is no "flow of power out of a terminal" like I think you are alluding to.  The battery does its thing, and the wire does its thing, and in a way they are not even aware of each other.   The battery has no clue where its output power is going to "flow."

Now, to change gears completely, when you analyze circuits, yes of course you can look at were the power is flowing, and measure power output, power flow, power dissipation, and energy, etc.  That power is flowing like a river.  But I believe that is a completely different analogy to the one you are referring to.  The power analysis I am referring to is a slight abstraction of the real power flows in a circuit without assigning specific physical attributes to it.  In contrast, you seem to be viewing power flowing out of a single battwey terminal like squeezing toothpaste out of a toothpaste tube, and that's not what's happening.

This is probably my last post in this thread.

MileHigh


Online wattsup

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #57 on: January 22, 2013, 02:59:37 PM »
@MH and @all

I have been busy with family matters in the last several days and will be for another day or so. Then I will continue with @MH's responses and all. I did not want to say anything half-witted and need all my concentration these days. Please do not think I am neglecting your comments, all of which for me are golden perspectives of a good EEer. But not all that seems to be gold, may be gold and I have to take this thread slowly so things sink in well. Back soon.

wattsup



Offline ismael_34

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #58 on: January 28, 2013, 06:12:04 AM »





        hi wattsup[/font][/color][/b][/font]


            maybe you want to try the same effect with a copper plate


http://www.agullomaderas.com/data/productos/40.007-f.jpg
             


Offline ismael_34

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
« Reply #59 on: January 28, 2013, 09:47:36 AM »





     hi [/size]wattsup[/size]

[/size]

[/size]
        Perhaps Radiant electricity - it is really something else.
I remember once I closed the battery terminals ordinary wrench. This caused a huge explosion with a white glow and rabryzgivayuschimisya white sparks in all directions. I remember I was in the neighborhood and the sparks fell on me, but he never got burned, as was the case with conventional electricity discharge. Maybe Radiant electricity - it is really something else.


Recently I was asked to translate the article from the English, there is just a manifestation described radiant electricity. I want to give this article here, I think many will be interested to read it, but the truth is it only leaves the question open, and then what was observed in the device dynatron? I think - this is something no less important.


Please do not judge strictly on the quality of the translation. Tested only once.
So, the passage from the book which I do not remember the author




Shocking discovery
...
Tesla constantly observed that connect either AC or DC power to the line often caused explosive effect. Along with the fact that these effects to be of practical use in the area of ‚Äč‚Äčimproving safety, Tesla was puzzled by certain piquant features of this phenomenon. He watched these powerful explosions when switches type "knife" quickly opens and closes his polyphase system. Vyklyuchatelnye blocks are often torn to pieces when the speed of the operator coincides with the current phase.


Tesla understood the situation very carefully. Suddenly applied currents cause both electrical and mechanical stresses in the conductors. When the speed of the turn is close enough and the power reaches a relatively high "crescendo", the effects do not look like a little sparkle. Electricity heats the wire first, bringing it to the point of evaporation. Then constant current application wire breaks into pieces electrostatic bursts. However, whether it was possible to apply a mechanical explanation of all aspects of the phenomenon?


The most resistant metals evaporated from such outbreaks. Others have used this phenomenon to produce tiny faceted diamonds. Yes, there were other aspects of the phenomenon of unbridled impulses that beckoned egoTeslu. Intrigued enough, he constructed a small glowing "generator" consisting of a high-voltage dynamo and small capacitance. His idea was to blow up certain parts of the wire with current "pozhih on glowing." He wanted to observe the effects of the mechanical explosion that have wires under the influence of sudden high power electrification.


Constant application of high current high voltage could eventually turn into thick wire pairs. Charged a high potential DC capacitors allowed to discharge through a section of thick wire. Tesla set up your machine so that to remove all possible current oscillations. When lowered single contact switch, it made the unit, an explosive electrical surge: once through impulse-like glow. Initially, Tesla is controlled by the system, manually moving heavy knife resembling the switch up and down. It became frustrating when voltage dynamo has increased significantly.


He quickly lowered his large knife switch, which he held in his hands in gloves. Broads! Wire exploded. But as soon as he did, with the force of the explosion Tesla stung many needles. Turning off the dynamo, he began to scratch his face, neck, arms, chest and hands. Annoyance was clear. While dynamo stopped, Tesla thought. The blast was powerful. Must have it sprayed fine droplets of molten metal as small as elementary particles of cigarette smoke. He carefully examined the body, but fortunately did not find any wounds. No trace of the searing blast, which he so clearly felt.


Place a large piece of plate glass between them and the exploding wire, he repeated the experiment again. Broads! Wire again turned to steam .. but burning all the pressure effect is also felt. But what was it? How is this burning effect could get through the glass plate? Now he was not sure if he felt the pressure effect, or whether it had an electric effect. Glass delayed the metal fragments, but was the protection of electrical effects.


After studying every detail carefully isolation experiment, Tesla gradually realized that it is very rare electrical phenomenon. Each "broads" is produced in response to Tesla unexpected shock while turned into steam section of wire. Constant explosions gave a strange effect, which has never been observed with alternating currents. Painful shock sensations appeared every time he lowered or raised the switch. These sudden shock currents were pulse, and not waves. Its really surprising is the fact that these resembling injections from needles shock strikes, could reach him at a distance, he was nearly ten feet away from where the discharge occurs!


These electrical stimulation differed from the wire in all directions, filling the room mysteriously. He had never seen anything like it. He thought that the hot metal vapor could act as charge carriers. That would explain the strong pressure wave that came with electrical injections. He used a long wire. The occasion was the bit when sufficient resistance, explosion occurred.


Replace the wire dynamo buzzing at a slower speed. He threw the switch on the handle time and again lost focus because of the oppressive searing waves! Effects continue even in the absence of explosive spark. Here there was a secret. Hot steam is not there to carry high charges across the room. No charge carriers can not be detected in order to explain the nature of the crushing waves of scalding. So it's all the same here?


Pressure waves were sharp and strong, like a miniature lightning. Felt their strange electrification, when the voltage is high enough dynamo. In fact, the bombing was felt uncomfortable when the voltage reaches a certain dynamo threshold. It became clear that these pressure waves could be electrified. Electrified sound waves. Such a phenomenon would not be surprising at high voltages. I guess he was lucky because he was able to observe this phenomenon for the first time.


He asked questions. How and why the charge jumped out of line in such a strange way? There has been a phenomenon that has not been described by any of the texts, which were familiar to this day. He knew all that was written about electricity. Thinking that he was the victim of a hidden, and possibly a dead short circuit, he quickly examined the design chain. However, despite searching, leaks were detected. There was simply no way for the appearance of the effect of the crown, the origins of which lie in the switch, which he held in his hands.


He decided to be isolated structure to eliminate all the possible leakage line and then repeated the experiment. Knife switch again quickly sank and rose again, and he felt bad shots, as painful as before. Right through the glass shield! Now, he was stumped. He wanted the full distance from the machine and began to modify the system again to make it "automatic."


Finally, he was free to walk around the room during the test. He could not hold a shield, or just walking without it. Small rotary spark gap switch-set instead of manual knife-switch. Rotary switch was made so that interrupt current dynamo slow, successful intervals. The system is put into operation, the motor switch closes contacts slowly. Clank ... clank ... clank ... each contact produced in exactly the same room-filling irritation.


This time it was the most intense. Tesla could not hide from the shots, despite the distance from the device over the entire length of his great hall - the gallery. He approached with fear just to deactivate the rotary switch. What he saw, painfully watching the sparks were thick blue and white, which went straight out of line with each electric contact.


Stinging sensations were felt far beyond the end of the visible sparks. This seemed to point to the fact that their potential was much greater than the voltage applied to the line. Paradox! Charge dynamo voltage was applied with fifteen thousand volts, however, pointed to the burning sparks, electrostatic discharges exceeding two hundred fifty thousand volts. Somehow, this input current is converted into an output voltage greater potential unknown process. No natural explanation is found. No scientific explanation has not helped. There simply was not enough information about the phenomenon in order to get an answer. And Tesla knew that this was unusual. Somewhere in the heart of this action lay deep natural secret. Secrets of this kind are always open humanity to new revolutions.


Tesla considered this strange effect of multiplying the voltage on all sides. The main problem was that there was no magnetic induction. Transformers increase or decrease the voltage when the current changes. There were impulses. Changes took place during the pulses. But in the chain was a transformer. There was no wire close enough that there is a magnetic induction. Without the magnetic induction is theoretically impossible to get a transforming effect. Impossible transformation from low to high voltage. Still, each comprising brought the blue and white sparks and their painful stings.


FOCUS


High current pulses produced hitherto unknown effect of floor heating. In fact, there has been a electrical "retransmission" effect of the application of which in a myriad of different designs Tesla isolated from all inventors. The effect of a new electric power became the most outstanding discoveries of great historical significance. In spite of this, only a few scientists recognized its importance. By focusing on the works of Maxwell dogmatiziruyuschih, scientists could not prevent the exciting discovery Tesla. Institutions have argued that the effect of Tesla could not exist. They insisted that Tesla rewrote his statement.


Tesla's mysterious effects could not be predicted by Maxwell, because Maxwell did not detect them in formulating his equations. How could he do that if the phenomenon was just discovered? Now Tesla was considering scientific applications of this new effect. Now what other electrical phenomena, which are not invested in Maxwell's laws of force? Will scientists ignore their existence? Will they even deny the possibility of such phenomena on the basis of incomplete mathematical descriptions?


Seeing that the effects can bring to mankind great opportunities as soon as they can learn, wanted to study Tesla Radiant electric effect and apply it in a much more secure environment. The first step he took, before proceeding with this pilot line was the creation of special grounded copper barriers: shields to protect themselves from exposure to electrical emanations
These were the size of the mantle body of a relatively thin layer of copper. He ground them, to see if the own safety. Expressed in terms of electrical, he formed a "Faraday cage" around. This design allows you to block any kind of static charges during the tests. He could simultaneously observe and write what he saw with confidence.
While at this copper mantle, Tesla began experimenting. ZZZZ ... connected to the motor switch wire dynamo interrupted several hundred times per second, but stun all continued. He felt a constant rhythm of electrostatic stimulation directly through the mantle, accompanied by pressure waves, which continued to increase. It's impossible. No electrical stimulation could not go through the amount of copper, which was made of a shield. However, this effect was thrusting energy, electrically shocking and oppressive. He had no words to describe this aspect of the new discovery. Injections were really burning.


Tesla was convinced that this was his new discovery will create an entirely new kind of inventions, and if his master limited. Its effect is completely different from those observed in high-frequency alternating current. These features, radiant sparks were the result of irreversible ramjet pulses. In effect, this effect was based on the irreversibility of these pulse bursts. Quick Contact powerful dynamo charging aroused great interest, what was not capable of any generator. There was a demonstration of the transmission of electricity.


Most scientists and engineers are defined in their points of view on Nikola Tesla and his discoveries. They seem fixated on the idea that the scope of his experimental work was limited electricity AC. This misconception can be detected by a thorough study of the patents. Few recognize documented fact that after working with the AC was completed, Tesla switched to the study of pulsed current. His patents from this period to the end of his career, full of terminology, operating exclusively concepts pulses.


The secret lay principally in the application of direct current in a short time. Tesla studied the increase in this interval, believing that may be able to eliminate the pain, shortening the period of time when the contact occurred. In a crazy amount of experimentation, he developed a rapid mechanical rotary switches that are capable of withstanding very high constant potentials. Each contact lasted one ten second.


Exposing themselves to such impulses of very low power, to his delight and surprise, he found that the pain is almost gone. In its place was a strange effect of pressure that was felt immediately across the border barrier. The increase in power did not allow an increase in pain, but to give the country an increase in the pressure field. The result is simply interrupt the DC high-voltage potential was fenoemen, which had not previously reported, except for the witnesses of lightning in the area. However, it was mistakenly attributed to the effects of pressure in the air.


At first, unable to explain their nature, Tesla also took a conservative phenomenon pressure to the pressure of air waves. He first announced that the field of pressure was due to acute air sound waves that suddenly appeared from the charged line. In fact, he wrote about it in his little-known publication in which he first announced his discovery. Calling electric effect "electrified sound waves", he described them in terms of features bombarding acoustics.


However, further experiments are gradually brought a new awareness that both electric stinging and oppressive effects do not occur in the air at all. He demonstrated that these effects take place to be immersed in oil. Impulse bit lines have been placed in the mineral little and thoroughly investigated. Manifestation of strong pressure coming out with sharp edges in the oil as if the air using a high pressure.


Tesla first believed that this thread has been the absorption of air is due to the electric pressure. Long repetition of the phenomenon convinced him that the stream was not air at all. In the future, it's not that he could not explain the effect, but he tried not to mention his own explanation for the fact that the high-voltage direct-flow worked out impulses.


Tesla performed electrical measurements of the projected flow. One end of the galvanometer was connected to a copper plate, and the other is grounded. When the pulses were applied to the line wires disconnected, located at a distance measuring device recorded the DC. The current through space without wires! This was something achieved pulses and which did not observed with any frequency currents.


Analysis of the situation showed that the electrical energy or electrical energy projected from the productive unit pulses as rays, not waves. Tesla was surprised to find these rays is consistent in its effect through space, describing them in one of his patents, the term "like light rays." These observations were confirmed by theoretical expectations described by Kelvin in 1854.


In another article Tesla calls them "dark rays" and "rays, which behave more like a light." Rays did not decrease with increasing distance from the source.

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Re: Welcome to Understanding Overunity!!!!!
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